|A "Global Air Monitoring Study" (7 September 2006) of 1,212 indoor workplaces in 24 different countries at found that:
Casas (1527) |
Oxford (1603) |
Falckenburgius (1644) | Tappius (1653) | Fagon (1699)
Hill (1761) | Rush (1798) | Fowler (1833) | Alcott (1836)
Lane (1845) | Burdell (1848) | Shew (1849)
Lizars (1859) | Trask (1860) | Mussey (1862)
Parton (1868) | Depierris (1876) | Chase (1878)
Jackson (1879) | Witter (1881) | Hinds (1882)
Lander (1882) | Livermore (1882) | Carpenter (1882)
Wight (1889) | Tennessee (1898) | Slocum (1909)
Tidswell (1912) | Gy (1913) | Ford (1914) | Fink (1915)
Kellogg (1922) | Macfadden (1924) | Brown (1925)
Pease (1929) | Van Noppen (1937) | Pearl (1938) | 15 USC § 1333
Most especially, "Ces faits sont suffisamment nombreux, suffisament précis pour affirmer une action nocive du tobac sur le cerveau," says Leon Binet, "La Fumée de Tabac: Est-Elle Un Poison du Cerveau?" 33 La Presse Médicale (#9) 134-135 (31 Janvier 1925): The facts are sufficiently manifold and exact to be able to affirm a harmful action of tobacco upon the brain, including but not limited to abulia, dyscalculia, dyslexia, confabulation, delusions including of grandeur, time disorientation, unresponsiveness to normal stimuli, mental disorders, hallucinations, intoxication, psychopathology, fragmentation, and anosognosia.
“One cigar contains a quantity of nicotine which would prove fatal to two persons if directly injected into the circulation. . . . The literature contains many references to tobacco poisoning where tobacco has been swallowed with suicidal intent, accidental poisonings. . . . Less severe poisonings have been noted by nearly every one upon beginning the use of tobacco, where the peripheral and nauseant actions predominate. Even chronic smokers often experience ill effects and pain from smoking.”William D. McNally provided examples:
||“Death occurred in nearly all of the cases of nicotine poisoning within a few minutes to a few hours, although I find record of one instance in which death did not occur for two days after the drinking of wine in which Spanish snuff had been placed by a practical joker, causing the death of the French poet Santeul.”||“Fontanelle, Julia: Jour. de Chimie Med., 1836, ii, 652.”
||“In another instance where death did not occur in a few hours, a child, age three, used for an hour an old pipe for blowing soap bubbles. Symptoms of poisoning developed and the child died on the third day.”|| “Pharm. Jour., 1877, p. 377. ”
||“Sonnenschein (quoted by Weidanz) relates the cases of two suicides in which death took place in three and five minutes respectively after swallowing one or two ounces of tobacco.”||“Weidanz: Heilkunde, Berlin., 1907, pp. 333-390.”
||“Reynolds reports a singular case of nicotine poisoning in which tobacco had been accidentally dropped into food warming on the stove. The food was given twice to a baby five months old, the baby became cyanotic, vomited twice, extremities were cold and clammy to the touch, pulse weak and irregular. Death occurred 13½ hours after the first feeding.”||“Reynolds: Jour. Am. Med. Ass'n., 1914, lxii, 1723.”
||“Huseman cites a case seen by Hellwig of two brothers who died after continuous smoking of seventeen and eighteen . . . pipefuls of tobacco.”||“Husemann: Handbuch der Toxicologie, 1862, p. 481.”
||“In another case a man died in one hour after an enema of two drams of tobacco in eight ounces of boiling water.”||“Edinburgh Med. and Surg. Jour., 1813, ix, 159.”|
|acetaldehyde (1.4+ mg)||arsenic (500+ ng)||benzo(a)pyrene (.1+ ng)|
|cadmium (1,300+ ng)||crotonaldehyde (.2+ µg)||chromium (1,000+ ng)|
|ethylcarbamate 310+ ng)||formaldehyde (1.6+ µg)||hydrazine (14+ ng)|
|lead (8+ µg)||nickel (2,000+ ng)||radioactive polonium (.2+ Pci)|
nicotine (insecticide) = C10H14N2
rohypnol (rape drug) = C16H12FN3O3
"NICOTINE, C10H14N2, an alkaloid, found with small quantities of nicotimine, C19H14N2, nicoteine, C10H12N2, and nicotelline, C10H8N2, in tobacco. . . .
"These four alkaloids exist in combination in tobacco chiefly as malates and citrates.
"The alkaloid is obtained from an aqueous extract of tobacco by distillation with slaked lime, the distillate being acidified with oxalic acid, concentrated to a syrup and decomposed by potash.
"The free base is extracted by ether and fractionated in a current of hydrogen.
"It is a colourless oil, which boils at 247° C. (745 mm). and when pure is almost odourless. It has a sharp burning taste, and is very poisonous.
"It is very hygroscopic, dissolves readily in water, and rapidly undergoes oxidation on exposure to air.
"The free alkaloid is strongly laevo-rotatory.
"F. Ratz (Monats., 1905, 26, p 1241) obtained the value [a]D = -169.54° at 20°, its salts are dextro-rotatory. It behaves as a di-acid as well as a di-tertiary base.
"On oxidation with chromic or nitric acids, or potassium permanganate, it yields nicotinic acid or ß3 pyridine carboxylic acid, C5H4N - CO2H; alkaline potassium ferricyanide gives nicotyrine, C10H14N2, and hydrogen peroxide oxynicotine, C10H14N2O.
"Oxidation of its isomethylhydroxide with potassium permanganate yields trigonelline, C7H7NO2 (A. Pictet and P. Genequand, Ber., 1897, 30, p 2117).
"It [nicotine] gives rise to various decomposition products such as pyridine, picoline, &c, when its vapour is passed through a red hot tube.
"The hydrochloride on heating with hydrochloric acid gives methyl chloride (B. Blau, Ber., 1893, 26, p 631). . .
"Hydriodic acid and phosphorus at high temperature give a dihydro-compound, whilst sodium and alcohol give hexa- and octo-hydro derivatives.
"Nicotine may be recognized by the addition of a drop of 30% formaldehyde, the mixture being allowed to stand for one hour and the solid residue then moistened by a drop of concentrated sulphruic acid, when an intense rose red colour is produced (I. Schindelmeiser, Pharm Zentralhalle, 1899, 40, p 704).
"The constitution of nicotine was established by A. Pinner (see papers in the Berichte, 1891 to 1895). . . .
"[Additional nicotine chemistry data] has been confirmed by its synthesis by A. Pictet and P Crépieux (Comptes rendus, 1903, 137, p 860) and Pictet and Rotschy (Ber., 1904, 37, p 1225). . . ."—"Nicotine," Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol 19, pp 665-666 (11th ed., 1913).
|"Nicotine is one of the most powerful of the 'nerve poisons' known. Its virulence is compared to that of prussic acid. . . . .
"It seems to destroy life not by attacking a few but all of the functions essential to it. . . . A significant indication of this is that there is no substance which can counteract its effects. . . .
"the use of tobacco in even the smallest amount impairs the functional action of the liver on the blood passing through it, and that the abnormal state of the blood thus caused will manifest itself by disturbance in the brain.
"Thus the nerves are under the constant influence of the drug and much injury to the system results."—C. W. Lyman, 48 New York Medical Journal 262-265 (8 Sep 1888).
|"Moreover, there is no question that arsenic . . . is definitely an active carcinogen on human tissue. . . . the arsenic content of American cigarettes has increased from two to six times in a period of 25 years. One popular brand contains from 41 to 52.5 micrograms of arsenic, of which one third remains in the butt, one third is in the ash, and one third goes into the smoke. About five micrograms of arsenic trioxide is inhaled from each cigarette. Three parts of arsenic trioxide per million is the maximum amount permitted in food."—Alton Ochsner, M.D., Smoking and Your Life (New York: Julian Messner Pub, 1954 rev 1964), p 15.
Unfortunately, "most laymen . . . lack the scientific background to recognize the damage that can be done by what appears [to them] to be miniscule amounts of irritants," p 16.
"Actually . . . the safety factor among the leading brands varies so little that offering it as the basis for smoking any cigarette is like offering a man the choice of committing suicide by jumping either from a 50- or 51-story building," p 16.
World War II military statistical analysis found that "300,000 bullets were fired for each man killed," says Prof. Michael P. Ghiglieri, Ph.D., The Dark Side of Man (Reading, MA.: Perseus Books, 1999), p 185. 299,999 misses, 1 hit = only a 1/300,000 correlation! Now there's a small number! (The Vietnam ratio was 1/40,000.)
See the article, "Lower Tar Makes No Difference," British Medical Journal, Vol 328, Issue # 7431 (10 January 2004) for an example of why this is so.
Tobaco poisons are so powerful in miniscule quantities that even smoking merely one cigarette can be enough to start the fatal addictive process.
"Smog technician Christopher Delo pulls a long, coiled probe out of the exhaust pipe of a late-model Volvo. The car passed smog certification, so it's time for his smoke break. Delo lights a Marlboro, still holding the pollution-measuring nozzle. He takes a drag and puffs directly into the end of the probe to 'smog' himself. Flashing across the computer screen at Newport Smog are readings for air-polluting molecules from partially burned fuel, including hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The 1997 Volvo measured 50 parts per million of hydrocarbon emissions. Delo's breath reads 351."
|People do recognize the dangers of small quantities when those chemicals, e.g., insecticide, apply to other creatures. Here is an example: wasp and hornet killer. The spray's active ingredients are tetramethin (.2%—2,000 ppm), and phenoxyphenyl methyl (.2%—2,000 ppm); inert ingredients are 99.6%—996,000 ppm. People recognize that such tiny quantities kill, but are deceived by tobacco pushers into deeming themselves exempt from lethality, when the word "cigarette" or "tobacco" is involved!
Lay failure to recognize the same on the TTS holocaust-level danger is a "natural and probable consequence" of tobacco advertising and the tobacco taboo.
Medical evidence shows that even a short (e.g., 30 minutes) exposure to TTS causes adverse cardiovascular effects in seven areas: (a) decreased artery elasticity; (b) impaired endothelial function; (c) increased platelet activation; (d) impaired cardiac autonomic function (heart rate variability); (e) impaired lipid metabolism; (f) decreased exercise tolerance, and (g) build-up of particulates in the lungs, which can obstruct breathing and blood flow, thus increase the workload of the heart.
For example of how laymen / smokers often react with denial when told the danger of small quantities of posions, see Reuben D. Mussey, M.D., LL.D., Health: Its Friends and Its Foes (Boston: Gould & Lincoln, 1862), p 101. For a number of additional examples of denial with respect to small quantites of poison, click here.
"The danger cigarettes . . . pose to health is, among others, a danger to life itself . . . a danger inherent in the normal use of the product, not one merely associated with its abuse or dependent on intervening fortuitous events.
"It threatens a substantial body of the population, not merely a peculiarly susceptible fringe group." [This is classic "universal malice"].
"[C]igarettes . . . are . . . wholly noxious and deleterious to health. Their use is always harmful; never beneficial. They possess no virtue, but are inherently bad, and bad only . . . widely condemned as pernicious altogether. Beyond question, their every tendency is toward the impairment of physical health and mental vigor. . . . Courts are authorized to take judicial cognizance of . . . those facts which, by human observation and experience, have become well and generally known to be true. . . . cigarettes are wholly noxious and deleterious and . . . an unmitigated evil."|
"the use of tobacco in any form is uncleanly, and . . . excessive use is injurious . . . . its use by the young is especially so. Tobacco, in short, is under the ban. One of the strongest arguments . . . against the cigarette, is that cigarettes are easily and cheaply obtained, and that [children are] liable to be tempted by that fact, and that the use of tobacco will thus be increased. . . ."
|(Note also the diversionary and fraudulent euphemism "Environmental Tobacco Smoke" ("ETS"). That bizarre term is a tobacco-lobby style diversion and fraud to divert attention to make it falsely appear as though the issue is "environment" as distinct from pushers' homicidal practices and smokers' mental disorder, brain damage, and addiction causing the killer-level exposures.)|
|TTS Chemical||TTS Quantity||“Speed Limit”|
PEL - TLV
|acetaldehyde||3,200 ppm||200.0 ppm|
|acrolein||150 ppm||0.5 ppm|
|ammonia||300 ppm||150.0 ppm|
|carbon monoxide||42,000 ppm||100.0 ppm|
|formaldehyde||30 ppm||5.0 ppm|
|hydrogen cyanide||1,600 ppm||10.0 ppm|
|hydrogen sulfide||40 ppm||20.0 ppm|
|methyl chloride||1,200 ppm||100.0 ppm|
|nitrogen dioxide||250 ppm||5.0 ppm|
|For background on why smokers spew these toxic chemicals,|
see 1977 reputation data juxtaposed with 1917 narcosis context.
For background on why smokers cannot understand such numeric
data, see background on brain damage, especially smokers'
acalculia (impaired arithmetical ability).
|Note that is fire that generates and releases the toxic chemical emissions cited by the Surgeon General. The combination of fire + chemicals causes the tobacco danger. “‘Fire, dealt with by the law of arson, is the prototype of forces which the ordinary [hu]man knows must be used with special caution because of the potential for wide devastation. Modem legislation puts explosion, flood, poison gas, and avalanche in the same category,” says Commonwealth v Hughes, 468 Pa 502, 511-512; 364 A2d 306 (1976) citing the “Comment to the Model Penal Code.” The Hughes case involved a smoker Hughes whose smoking in turn caused a “fire,” “several explosions,” and “the death of two firemen.” He “was arrested . . . indicted on two counts of involuntary manslaughter.” The court upheld the charge.
Note also that tobacco processes constitute a “Universal malice.” A "universal malice" is a behavior that causes “premature death” “without knowing or caring who may be the victim,” Black’s Law Dictionary (4th ed. 1968) page 1110, citing Mitchell v State, 60 Ala 26, 30 (1877).“Precisely what happened is what might have been expected as the result . . . and is the natural and probable consequence . . . Malice is presumed under such conditions,” Nestlerode v United States, 74 US App DC 276, 279; 122 F2d 56, 59 (1941).
Tobacco toxic chemicals released by fire have universal malice traits: it “is not directed [in its killing tendencies] to any particular individual, but is general and indiscriminate . . . putting the lives of many in jeopardy . . . without the intent to kill any particular person, but . . . likely to [kill] some one or more persons . . . ‘ regardless of human life, although without any preconceived purpose to deprive any particular person of life,” State v Massey, 20 Ala App 56; 100 So 625, 627 (1924).
National Realty and Construction Co, Inc v Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission, 160 US App DC 133; 489 F2d 1257 (1973) (the general duty clause with the safety duty adjective “free” (meaning “free” of banned hazards) is “unqualified and absolute,” such that hazards must be "excluded" from the workplace. Obeying the “absolute” duty is reasonable) International Union, UAW v General Dynamics Land Systems Division, 259 US App DC 369; 815 F2d 1570 (1987) cert den 484 US 976; 108 S Ct 485; 98 L Ed 2d 484 (1987) (both specific standards and the "general duty clause" must be obeyed) American Textile Mfrs. Inst v Donovan, 452 US 490, 509; 101 S Ct 2478; 69 L Ed 2d 185 (1981) (Safety is "above" all "other considerations") American Smelting & R. Co v Occ. Safety & Health Rev Comm, 501 F2d 504, 515 (1974) ('monitoring,' whether called 'biological' or by another term, is not 'preventing' and 'suppressing' the hazard, but rather merely observing it continue. "Biological monitoring" is inadequate when it does "not eliminate or even reduce the hazard," but merely reveals it)
| 42,000 ppm - cigarettes' carbon monoxide
| 32,000 For perspective, police stop speeders going 60 in a 50 mph zone.
| Tobacco far exceeds the "speed limits." Tobacco kills precisely
| because its toxic chemicals are above the safe levels.
| 12,000 ppm - cars' limit “Cigarette Makers Get Away With Murder,”
| (40 CFR § 85.2203-81) says Elizabeth M. Whelan, Sc.D., M.P.H.,
| in The Detroit News, p 4B (3-14-93). The
| above "speed limit" numbers show why.
| 2,000 (Not to scale)
| 50 - legal amount indoors ( OSHA 29 CFR § 1910.1000)
| 9 - legal amount outdoors (EPA)
| 0 - amount cigarette pushers allow from their own personal furnaces
|“The smoker of cigarettes is constantly exposed to levels of carbon monoxide in the range of 500 to 1,500 parts per million when he inhales the cigarette smoke.”—G. H. Miller, Ph.D., “The Filter Cigarette Controversy,” 72 J Indiana St Med Ass'n (#12) 903, 904 (Dec 1979).|
|“The blood of cigarette smokers will contain from 2 to 10 percent carboxyhemoglobin . . . initial symptoms of poisoning . . . will result from exposures to 1,000 ppm for 30 minutes or 500 ppm for one hour. One hour at 1500 ppm is dangerous to life. Short exposures (one hour) should not exceed 400 ppm.”—Julian B. Olishifski, P.E., C.S.P., Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene, 2d ed (National Safety Council), pp 1039-1040.|
|“[L]ittle mixing takes place, as can be seen by watching smoke plumes rise in still air. Even when the plume is disturbed, the visible core can be observed to maintain homogeneity over a distance of one to three meters . . . .
“the core with concentrations of tens to hundreds of parts per million of the powerful irritants acrolein [150 ppm] and formaldehyde [30 ppm] can readily contact eyes or be breathed with only slight dilution.
“The irritant [bad smell] properties of these materials may be partly inferred by their occupational limits. These are 0.1 to 0.3 ppm for acrolein and 1 to 3 ppm for formaldehyde.”—Howard E. Ayer, M.S., David W. Yeager, B.S., “Irritants in Cigarette Smoke Plumes,” 72 Am J Pub Health (#11) 1283 (Nov 1982).
The Michigan law banning cigarettes with deleterious ingredients, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, is clearly a life-saver, intended to prevent cigarettes with dangerous ingredients!! Only safe cigarettes, if any, can legally be manufactured, given away, and sold in Michigan. Are you convinced? Or do you want to know more than this "tip of the iceberg" of cigarettes' deleteriousness?
"‘At the time of one of the German gas attacks our soldiers, nurses, and higher medical staff, even when in the open air, did not notice a feeble current of poison gas that reached them; while the sick in the hospital at that place, who had been gassed before, at once felt the presence of the poison, although they were in a closed building. This happened in October when the doors were tightly closed and the windows had double frames, pasted up for the winter. These patients immediately raised the alarm and soon their statements were confirmed, as a real wave of the gas came. The gas, without any doubt, was harmful to the well people outdoors, although they were not aware of the presence of the poison. This case clearly shows that people may suffer injurious effects from poisonous gases, such as tobacco smoke, without being aware of the fact.’"
"'People who have been poisoned with gas can at once detect the presence of an extremely small proportion of carbon monoxide in the air and, in general, are exceptionally sensitive to all harmful gaseous substances. They also become very sensitive to tobacco smoke. I have been told by many who were poisoned with gases during the war, that now they positively cannot endure tobacco smoke.’”—Kellogg, supra, pp 147-148.
|See SIDS example.|
Tobacco Smoke Aggressiveness
For background, see E. A. Martell, "Tobacco Radioactivity and Cancer in Smokers," 63 American Scientist 404-412 (July-August 1975). "The remarkable concentrations of 210Pb on small Aitken particles, on tobacco trichomes, and in insoluble cigarette smoke particles dramatically illustrate . . . concentration and fractionation processes. Similarly remarkable concentration and fractionation processes are involved in the inhalation, deposition, retention, clearance, and accumulation of insoluble particles in the lung and other organs. . . . the particles are confined to less than a gram of lung tissue, in which the alpha disintegration rate is more than 1,000 times that of dissolved natural alpha activity. . . Giving rise to a substantial increase in the number of alpha-induced structural changes in chromosomes and thus in the tumor risk," p 411.
"Because 210Pb has a radioactive half-life of 22 years, the body burden of the radioactive 210 Pb and its radioactive daughter products — 210Bi (bismuth-210) and 210Po — can continue to build up throughout the period of smoking . . . In addition, insoluble dust- particle accumulations in the lung and lymph nodes may ulcerate into adjoining blood vessels and be carried elsewhere in via the blood circulation. Thus long-term exposure to insoluble particles of respirable size leads to their accumulation in the lung. Lymph nodes, liver, bone marrow, and elsewhere," p 404.
"Alpha-emitting particles in bone marrow may destroy many of the rapidly multiplying cells that produce the blood platelets which assist in the control of blood clotting. . . . In addition, the gradual increase in alpha radiation-induced chromosomal structural changes may be expected to contribute to the whole pattern of degenerative diseases of the cardiovascular and renal system," p 408.
"Irradiation of endothelial cells of the artery wall has been shown to render them highly permeable to the passage of red cells, lymphocytes, small particles, lipids, cholesterol, etc., allowing their exchange between the blood and the intima of the artery wall. In addition, irradiation of arterial tissue results in morphologic changes, including radionecrosis and inflamation of the surrounding endothelial cells, radiation damage to red cells, and possible degeneration of lipids due to breakdown of red cells," p 410.
"Study: Tobacco firms' own research showed dangers" (September 2011), says "Tobacco companies knew for decades that cigarette smoke was radioactive and potentially carcinogenic but kept that information from the public."
Radioactive polonium is "being absorbed through the pulmonary circulation and carried by the systemic circulation to every tissue and cell, causing mutations . . . deviation of cellular characteristics . . . and early death from a body-wide spectrum of disease."—R. T. Ravenholt, 307 New Engl J Med (#5) 312 (29 July 1982).
This "deteriorates and contaminates every organ and tissue with which it comes in contact in the body."—Theodore Frech and Luther Higley, The Evils of Tobacco and Cigarettes (Butler, Indiana: The Higley Printing Co, 1916), p 20.
"Smoking bad for you inside and out" (13 July 2008) (article by a doctor on damage that smoking does to the body, inside and out, including the skin, e.g., causes wrinkles--an effect reported as long ago as 1857.)
Such data on radioactivity rendering artery walls "highly permeable to the passage of red cells" helps explain what was described a century ago: "Autopsies have revealed large foci of softening in the brain, hemorrhages into the meninges, and capillary apoplexies in the brain substance."—G. W. Jacoby, 50 New York Medical Journal 172 (17 August 1889). Also, "Ecchymosis occurs in the pleura and peritoneum. Hyperemia of the lungs, brain, and cord is found. . . . Coarse lesions have been found in the brain and spinal cord."—L. P. Clark, 71 Medical Record (26) 1073 (29 June 1907).
"A single burning cigarette in a closed room gives rise to particle concentrations of [approximately] 105 per cm3 . . . Extemely concentrated cloud of particles and vapors in mainstream smoke . . . Radon progeny on large mainstream smoke particles will be deposited in the tracheobronchial tree with a highly nonuniform distribution. Deposition in the right upper lobe of the human lung may approach twice that in the other four lobes . . . . Such particles are deposited with higher surface densities in the lobar and segmental bronchi than elsewhere within each lung lobe . . . selective deposition at bifurcations takes place for particles in both the diffusion and impaction subranges and results in highly localized ‘hot spots' at bifurcations. The hot spot intensities increase steeply with particle size . . . ."—E. A. Martell, "d-Radiation dose at Bronchial Bifurcations of Smokers from Indoor Exposure to Radon Progeny," 80 Proc Nat'l Acad Sci, U.S.A. 1285-1289 (March 1983), at p 1286.
Also, "due to progressive damage to the epithelium at bifurcations of smokers, leading to lesions with loss of cilia . . . particle retention times . . . increase with smoking rate and duration of smoking in years. Albert et al. . . . demonstrated that most cigarette smokers had bronchial clearance, with an average half-time of 172 min. Particles that resist clearance would include those deposited at bifurcations in lesions with cilia absent. Particle half-residence times of 172 min are sufficient for nearly complete decay of 214Po from deposited radon progeny associated with smoke tars . . . the bronchial epithelium is incapable of absorbing ore than negligible amounts of tar--further indication that radon progeny associated with smoke tar particles deposited at bifurcations may persist for substantial . . . decay of 214Po before clearance," p 1287.
"210Pb-enriched smoke particles produced by tobacco trichome combustion are highly insoluble." "That inhaled tobacco tars are highly concentrated at segmental bifurcations of cigarette smokers is borne out by several lines of evidence. . . Ermala and Holsti . . . observed highly localized tar deposits in the tonsillar region, at the vocal cords, and at the tracheal and bronchial bifurcations--sites closely correlated with the clinical frequency of cancer of respiratory tract ins smokers. . . Little et al. . . . observed high local concentrations of 210Po at individual bifurcations of smokers," p 1287.
"The age-related incidence of bronchial cancer in smokers, duration of smoking in years to the fifth power, indicates a multistage process of cancer induction involving at least two stages of DNA transformation." "Brues pointed out . . . that tumors arise focally in small irradiated tissue volumes," p 1289.
"About 50 percent of cancer attributed to smoking could be caused by radioactivity, according to Drs. Thomas H. Winter and Joseph R. Di Franza, at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. . . .
"In the lungs of some persons smoking 1½ packs of cigarettes per day are areas of radiation concentration equivalent to 300 X-rays annually. The particles tend to collect at the branches of the bronchial tubes, a common location for cancers to occur. . . . .
"Radiation is emitted by polonium 210 and lead 210, which are found in tobacco filaments and insoluble particles in tobaccco smoke.
"Winters and Di Franza say the studies also contain some evidence that the radioactivity affects nonsmokers as well. They say 75 percent of the radiation in cigarette smoke enters the air and could be inhaled by those who work or associate with smokers.
"'The detrimental effects of tobacco smoke have been considerably underestimated, making it less likely that chemical carcinogens alone are responsible for the observed incidence of tobacco-related carcinoma,' the doctors report."—"Half of 'Smoking' Cancers Caused by Radiation," 28 Smoke Signals (4) 8 (April 1982).
The radiation poisoning death of ex-Russian KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko in November 2006 brought a renewed interest in the cigarette contaminant Polonium-210. A confidential Philip Morris (PM) memo from 1980 written by Roger Comes (a Associate Senior Scientist in PM's Research and Development department in Richmond, Virginia) responds to news reports about a research article that was published at the time by Edward Martell that revealed that cigarette smoke contained low levels of the radioactive alpha particle emitting constituent Polonium-210. The memo confirms that PM was aware at that time that smoke from their cigarettes contained radioactive lead and polonium, and that it was derived from the uranium contained in the calcium phosphate fertilizers that farmers regularly used on tobacco-growing soils. Comes states that"210-Pb [radioactive lead] and 210-Po [radioactive polonium] are present in tobacco and smoke...."
He also suggested that switching to another fertilizer could probably help the situation:
"...using ammonium phosphate instead of calcium phosphate as fertilizer is probably a valid but expensive point..."
What most news stories about this fail to say is that, while weapons-grade pure Polonium-210 is rare, we have all been exposed to hazardous amounts of Polonium-210 mixed with other carcinogens and poisons. Polonium-210 is one of three radioactive elements in tobacco smoke. A smoker inhales an average of .04 picocuries of Polonium-210 per cigarette, and nonsmokers in the same room typically receive about 10% that amount. A single atom of Polonium-210 lodged in the lung could be the trigger that initiates a fatal lung cancer, and the risk increases with greater exposure. Polonium-210 is part of the toxicology reason that TTS kills an estimated 53,000 US nonsmokers annually. Thomas Dennen in a November 2006 article, "SMOKERS – YOU ARE INHALING THE SAME RADIOACTIVE POISON THAT KILLED Russian ex-spy Alexander Litvinenko!: When Did Governments (and tobacco companies) Know About Polonium 210 and How Long Have They Known?," says, "Polonium 210 is found in trace amounts in cigarette smoke and is the major reason it causes cancer. Polonium 210 is the only component of cigarette smoke that has produced cancers by itself in laboratory animals by inhalation - tumors appear at a level FIVE TIMES LOWER than the dose to a heavy smoker." Robert N. Proctor, Ph.D., in "Puffing on Polonium" (New York Times, 1 December 2006), says, "When the former K.G.B. agent Alexander V. Litvinenko was found to have been poisoned by radioactive polonium 210 last week, there was one group that must have been particularly horrified: the tobacco industry. The industry has been aware at least since the 1960s that cigarettes contain significant levels of polonium. . . ."
Philip Morris' website, http://www.pmdocs.com/ using the search engine term, "radioactive cigarettes," and Lorillard's website, http://www.lorillarddocs.com/. For radioactivity data, click here. http://www.lenntech.com/Periodic-chart-elements/Po-en.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polonium http://www.webspawner.com/users/radioactivethreat/index.html www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/polonium.pdf http://www.forces.org/evidence/evid/radon.htm http://www.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/batco/html/9600/9621/ http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/143/3603/247 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v211/n5051/abs/211842a0.html
|TTS violates the public "right to fresh and pure air" and constitutes garbage, matter being disposed of. For example, "along a 300-foot stretch [of freeway] one July day [were] dozens of cigarette butts," says "Trash Register," National Geographic, Vol. 214, Issue 6, December 2008, p 33. "Cigars and cigarettes leak toxic chemicals into watersheds." And, "anti-litter campaigns and ongoing cleanup [occur] at a cost of $11 billion a year."
So pursuant to a long line of case law, TTS and its delivery agents (cigarettes, cigars, etc.) constitute a nuisance per se.
The bottom line is that emitting TTS is an "ultrahazardous activity" as that term is defined in professional material. See an analysis of the concept by the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of Laird v Nelms, 406 US 797; 92 S Ct 1899; 32 L Ed 2d 499 (1972). There, sonic booms and dynamite blasting are discussed in context of "ultrahazardous activity." Each produces a spreading effect.
Cigarettes do that via fires and via their toxic chemicals, superheated, aggressive motion, moving at high speed. In contrast to sonic booms and dynamite blasting, cigarettes kill 37,000,000 in the U.S. alone, and constitute a "holocaust." This is the most "ultrahazardous activity" on earth.
Smokers' Chemical Exposure Self-Test
Nonsmokers' Chemical Exposure Self-Test
The 1999 World Health Organization Report
The 'National Poisons Centre' of Malaysia
The BAT Biological-Conference Report
"Displaying an enviable spark of intelligence in their pin-head minds, insects recognize that tobacco does them no good and they do their best to keep away from it. You can take advantage of their good sense by putting a handful of tobacco or tobacco wastes in water to make a spray. Let the meal steep for 24 hours, and then dilute the solution to the color of weak tea. Stems can be purchased from florists and seedsmen, and store-bought plug tobacco works fine. Or, you can save a little time and effort by purchasing a tobacco extract and following the directions on the package. Tobacco sprays spread better if soap is added, but be sure to rinse the |119plants with clear water after each application so that foliage is not burned. This is potent juice, and should be used well before releasing beneficials in the garden. Tobacco sprays do funny things to roses, so unless the prospect of black roses piques your curiosity, use another [pesticide] spray."—Roger P. Yepsen, Jr., et al., Organic Plant Protection (Emmaus, Pa: Rodale Press, 1976), pp 118-119.
"Nicholas Culpeper in his 1681 The English Physician Enlarged recommended tobacco juice to kill lice on children's heads, a very early reference to the use of tobacco as an insecticide poison. Piano Leaf 40, an environmentally safe and biodegradable agricultural insecticide used around the world, is 40 percent nicotine sulfate. Farmers have been using nicotine sulfate insecticide since the early 1800s. To make it, all you do is boil tobacco leaves in water with a little sulfuric acid (the same acid as in a car battery). Steve Van Nattan's formula: Buy a tin of cheap pipe tobacco. Put it in a kettle of boiling water. Add about six fresh chopped garlics. Add several crushed pods of the hottest chili around, like habanero. Boil at a simmer for at least one hour. You will want to have the windows open or do this outdoors or else your house will smell like something you stepped in. Strain the solids out with cheese cloth or use a coffee filter. Put the liquid in a pistol grip spray bottle. Use on indoor plants against aphids and other insects especially during winter infestations of house plants. Use on outdoor plants any time. Use to spray the trunks of saplings to prevent girdling by critters during winter. Smart animals will not come near tobacco," says "Tobacco Use" (2002).
Philip Morris, Inc. v Harshberger, Mass Atty Gen, Case 98-1199
Dr. Jackson (1826)
Prof. Hitchcock (1833)
Dr. Thorn (1845)
Dr. Titus Coan (1850)
Dio Lewis (1882)
Neal Dow (1882)
Dr. Schroff (1882)
Dwarzak et Heinrich (1891)
Higley & Frech (1916)
|Ed. Note: "When something 'new' in medical literature is published, it is a wise precaution to read previous literature on the subject—that 'something new' may not really be new."—Alison B. Froese and Prof. A. Charles Bryan, "High Frequency Ventilation," 123 Am Rev Resp Dis (#3) 249-250 (March 1981).|
Tobacco-caused deterioration, personal and national, has long been reported, as per a lengthy list of references.
|Alzheimer's||Birth Defects||Brain Damage||Breast Cancer|
|Hearing Loss||Heart Disease||Lung Cancer||Macular Degeneration|
|Mental Disorder||Seat Belt Disuse||SIDS||Suicide|
"ASHRAE concludes that:
|Exec Order 1992-3||Law Support Letter # 1||Anti-Cigarette Smuggling Finding||Law Support Letter # 2||Governor's Overview|
Legal Term Definitions
U.S. Supreme Court Cases
Federal Circuit Court Tobacco Cases
Dangerous Tobacco Cases
Tobacco Company Behavior Cases
consolidating in one narrative, data from a multiplicity of sources,
refuting the then notion that cigarettes are a cost plus to society
"Smoking as hazardous conduct,"
86 N Y State Journal of Medicine 493 (September 1986)
"[Indoor Air Quality] IAQ Already Regulated,"
3 Indoor Air Review 3 (April 1993)
"Alternative Models for Controlling Smoking Among Adolescents,"
87 Am Journal of Public Health 869-870 (May 1997)
by doing for them as for all other people:
a law providing that only safe products
be manufactured, given away, and sold
Skull of a Skeleton with Burning Cigarette
Vincent van Gogh, 1885-1886
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E-mail@TCPG Copyright © 1999 Leroy J. Pletten
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Copyright © 1999 Leroy J. Pletten