Abolitionists overwhelmingly proved otherwise:
See also religious antislavery works and sermons posted online by the Anti-slavery Literature Project. ["The Antislavery Literature Project is located at the Arizona State University English department and operates in collaboration with the Eserver at the Iowa State University English department."]
This paper on slavery covers two of the more famous abolitionists, Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896) and William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879), and outlines some of the religious beliefs of that era against slavery and tobacco.
Other abolitionists such as William Goodell and Lysander Spooner (who wrote on the legal principles making slavery illegal and unconstitutional are referenced at our "Pre-Civil War U.S. Slavery Was Illegal and Unconstitutional" website. See also our list of primary-source books from the era.)
"God loves freedom and hates slavery, and he loves to behold the most intense love of freedom in his creatures; and the most unmitigated hatred of slavery and oppression in all its forms," says Rev. George B. Cheever, Discourse (1856), p 30.
The word "slave" was never used to describe a legitimate condition in the Hebrew Bible. Instead, to describe the immoral thing it is, terms such as "made . . . to serve with rigor" and "hard bondage" (Exodus 1:13-14) were used to describe the concept.
The Hebrews did not, contrary to Southern mythology, have slaves. "In reality, the [so-called] Hebrew slave is a hireling [employee]," says Henry J. Grimmelsman, Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Mt. St. Mary Seminary of the West, Cincinanati, The Book of Exodus (Norwood, Cincinnati, Ohio: The Seminary Book Store, 1927), p 144. The Hebrews had employees, not slaves.
The Hebrews had learned the lesson the Pharaoh had not; committing slavery = a capital offense, like kidnapping (man-stealing) and murder, as per the precedents of the Exodus.
What were those precedents of the Biblical Exodus? What is the Bible way to treat slavers? Answer: mass executions of slavers and their first-born [Exodus 14:27-28 and Exodus 12:29-30], meaning, execute the principals, the accessories, and the beneficiaries of slavery.
Abolitionists saw that the death penalty was the law in Ancient Israel, personally and nationally, for committing slavery, Deuteronomy 24:7 and Exodus 21:16 ("He that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hands, he shall surely be put to death"), and confirmed in the New Testament: 1 Timothy 1:10 ("The law is made for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for man-slayers, for whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for men-stealers [slavers], for liars, for perjured persons").
1. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote a number of separate short stories, later published in one volume as a book (Uncle Tom's Cabin) in 1852 that, next to the Bible, was then the #1 bestseller. She was the wife of Calvin Stowe, a Professor of Religion at Lane Seminary in Ohio, next to the Kentucky border. Her father was President of a theological seminary. Her six brothers were all ministers.
2. Back then, women were supposed to be "seen but not heard" on political subjects. Her own sister had written a book saying that women should keep silent. But Mrs. Stowe knew how to write. In her 20's, she had written a geography book for children. Her husband, the professor, did not make much money. So he figured, 'let her write, it'll bring in some extra money.' A collection of her writings is maintained for research purposes at the Harriet Beecher Stowe Center.
3. Pursuant to English and U.S. constitutional and criminal law, slavery was illegal and unconstitutional. Kidnaping, murder, robbery, and rape (the basic features of slavery as it existed) were illegal. Some religious Northerners said that slavery was therefore a sin. A number of men had written books, articles, and even set up newspapers to oppose it, and get it abolished. But they were not having success, as most Northerners felt unaffected by slavery. Any sin, it wasn't them doing it.
4. But 1850 brought a change. Slaves had been escaping along the "Underground Railroad." Some religious Northerners had been following the principles of
5. But in 1850, slave holders from the self-proclaimed "Bible-Belt" had Congress pass a law (the Fugitive Slave Act) making following those biblical principles [as state laws said to do] a crime. Self proclaimed "Bible-Belt" politicians banned, preempted, the state laws. Such pro-slavers felt that Northerners following the Bible in this matter was "aiding and abetting" escapes. This anti-Bible law forced on America by the "Bible-Belt South" made Northerners such as Mrs. Stowe feel that they were now being forced to participate in their sin of slavery. Reference Acts 5:29, on obeying Bible law vs politician law. So the anti-Bible Fugitive Slave Law was widely defied as unbiblical and unchristian. For details, see Lewis Tappan, The Fugitive Slave Bill (New York: William Harned, 1850), and Tappan et al., Proceedings (1855), especially pp 30, 34-35, and 48.
Contrary to these Bible principles, the pretended "Bible-Belt" South that controlled Congress had that law written to prevent jury trials for alleged "fugitive slaves," thus let non-slaves be kidnpped and enslaved without trial! For Abolitionist Attorney Wendell Phillips' guidance on how such persons could force getting a jury trial, click here. For analysis in context of English abuses the colonists had fled England to escape, see the book by eminent historian Richard Hildreth, Atrocious Judges (New York and Auburn: Orton & Mulligan, 1856), note at p 84.
6. A magazine publisher knew Mrs. Stowe opposed slavery, so offered her $300 to write four anti-slavery short stories. But based on her knowledge of incidents of abuses, the narrative grew, grew, and grew some more. Years later, Mrs. Stowe said, "God wrote it." Her intended four stories became 45 chapters, 442 pages! The separate stories were reprinted in one volume as Uncle Tom's Cabin (Boston: John P. Jewett & Co, 1852). After criticism by Southerners denouncing her as a liar, she was led to more fully document evils of slavery (citing Southerners' own writings and analyses) in a 508 page sequel, The Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin (Boston: John P. Jewett & Co, 1853), then two more books.
7. Mrs. Stowe used a story style of writing. She, or God, wrote her books more effectively, or at least, differently, than anti-slavery men had. Instead of a dry academic, encyclopedic, style, listing incident after incident on the evils of slavery, and slavers as "atheists," she wrote in vivid word pictures. She showed effects on slaves, especially women, marriage banned, "husbands" sold, their families broken up, and themselves abused. (Examples were voluminous.) Stowe's mother had died when she was five, increasing her empathy for slaves separated from their families. The term "women's issue" did not exist back then, but that in effect is what she made vivid, as readers identified with the characters.
8. Stowe also used an example that northerners (with their Constitution) could relate to. Slave holders (and their lying-clergy apologists, e.g., Dr. Wisner) were saying that slaves [meaning, kidnaped people] should "accept God's will," evidently God wanted slavery, and slaves should just accept it. When Mrs. Stowe wrote, the danger of being captured by Indians was still an event Northerners could dread. So Mrs. Stowe wrote a rebuttal to the slaver "just accept it" / "servants, obey your masters," allegations:
|When whites were captured, taken prisoner by Indians, they were separated from their families, and Indians would keep them, let's say, hoeing corn.
Rhetorically, Mrs. Stowe asked, Is escaping a sin? Are the Indians now "your masters"? Are you now "their servants"? duty-bound to stay with them? to not escape?
Is that God's will for you?
If opportunity to escape occurs, is escaping a sin? or taking Indians' food or supplies for the journey with you?
Instinctively, Northerners understood Mrs. Stowe's point: There were no masters, none authorized by Bible or Constitution, and so, no obligation to obey them.
But rather, there is a right to escape, to use standard self-defense methods, and, for others to aid you in escaping, a right to rescue.
|Rev. John Fee in 1851 had shown that "masters" were actually "extortioners." He|
See also precedents on rescue incidents.
David Walker in Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World (28 September 1829); Rev. Henry Highland Garnet in Address to the Slaves of the United States (16 August 1843); and Abolitionist Attorney Wendell Philips supported this concept in slavery context, pursuant to 1 Timothy 5:8 (duty to care for family, e.g., protect wife from rape, children from being taken away, sold, etc.). The duty, not just right, is to kill slavers, is to escape their clutches, to not get into the position of their issuing orders (as happened) to murder one's own relatives, or to suffer one's own wife raped, or children beaten to death or sold.
Accordingly there is therefore nothing in the Bible, or any Bible writing whatsoever, telling kidnap victims, slaves to obey their extortioners, kidnappers, masters.
All accusations against Bible writers that they said such-and-such in favor of obeying slavers, is wrong, untrue, blatantly so, and libelous.
9. Mrs. Stowe also used sermon style data showing why slavery was a sin. Another thing that Mrs. Stowe did differently was that she published in significant detail Scriptures that slavery is a sin—in essence a sermon. Slave-holders were simply using the word "slavery" from the Bible, without regard for its actual meaning. American-style "slavery" was nothing like the Old Covenant had "allowed."
In Genesis 18, when God and two angels visited Abraham, even though he had 300+ servants, he and his wife seemed to do all the work of preparing the meal.
In Exodus 21:16 and Deuteronomy 24:7, the Old Covenant banned kidnaping [manstealing], set the death penalty, and she had an entire chapter on kidnaping by slave-holders.
Old Covenant "servitude" ended in seven years. It was not for life. Exodus 21:2. Even if servants were bought from heathen (a rule the Southerners could not invoke as their slave-sellers claimed to be Christian), slaves bought from heathens were freed by the 50-year Jubilee. Leviticus 25:10 and 54.
The slaves were of course, strangers from another continent, Africa, and the Old Covenant commanded over and over again, treat strangers as one born among you, don't vex or oppress them, instead love them. Exodus 22:21 and 23:9; Leviticus 19:34; Deuteronomy 1:16, 10:17-19, and 27:19.
The Old Covenant did not allow for family destruction by the fact that it did not allow for selling slaves; no change except automatic freedom from the original "master" could be made except with voluntary consent. Exodus 21:5-6 and Leviticus 25:42. But slave holders disregarded this.
The Old Covenant commanded time off for the Sabbath, the feasts, and every seventh year. Exodus 20:10 and 34:23; Leviticus 25:4-6; and Deut. 12:12. Slave holders disregarded this.
In Deuteronomy 6:6-9, everyone was to read and teach their children, whereas the South made it a crime for slaves to read.
Adultery was forbidden, Exodus 20:14; Leviticus 20:10, which was also a widely-ignored rule, as "masters" (in addition to their own wife) would also take the wives of slaves.
In 2 Samuel 9:10, Old Covenant servants had servants of their own. In 1 Chronicles 2:34, one master Sheshan gave his daughter to an Egyptian servant, Jarha, as a wife, and their son, Attai, was included in the genealogies like any other Israelite.
10. In other words, Mrs. Stowe said, the Old Covenant mandated strict equality in all civil and religious affairs. Everyone was made a citizen with full inclusion in the system, i.e., protection by the government, Deuteronomy 29:10-12. In the United States, the opposite was the de facto law (though the Constitution and laws actually said otherwise). When a slave sued a master, immoral federal judges despising morality and the rule of law, reduced them to the point where they "had no rights which the [slave master] was bound to respect." Dred Scott v Sandford, 60 US 393, 407; 15 L Ed 691 (1857).
11. In 1829, outgoing Pope Leo XII or incoming Pius VIII told Mexico to abolish slavery "for the glory of God and to distinguish mankind from the brute creation." See abolitionist Parker Pillsbury, Acts of the Anti-Slavery Apostles (Concord, N.H., 1883), pages 67, 81, and 381. Abolitionists knew this and were citing the fact even six decades later as the Pillsbury book shows.
More Information on
Roman Catholic Church
Opposition to Slavery
12. In Uncle Tom's Cabin, p 336, Stowe makes a significant point to rebut one of the slavers' responsibility denials. After describing some brutality by slaver Simon Legree, Stowe wrote:
“‘You must not take that fellow to be any specimen of Southern planters,’ said he [a purportedly respectable slaver].
“‘I should hope not,’ said the young gentleman, with emphasis.
“‘He is a mean, low, brutal fellow!’ said the other.
“‘And yet your laws allow him to hold any number of human beings subject to his absolute will, without even a shadow of protection; and, low as he is, you cannot say that there are not many such.’
“‘Well,’ said the other, ‘there are also many considerate and humane men among planters.’
“‘Granted . . . but it is you considerate, humane men, that are responsible for all the brutality and outrage wrought by these wretches; because, if it were not for your sanction and influence, the whole system could not keep foothold for an hour. If there were no planters except such as that one,’ said he, pointing with his finger to Legree . . . ‘the whole thing would go down like a millstone. It is your respectability and humanity that licenses and protects his brutality.’”
13. Applying Matthew 25:41-45, Stowe ended the Key:
"In the last judgement, will He not say to you, 'I have been in the slave prison, in the slave coffle [chain gang]. I have been sold in your markets; I have toiled for naught in your fields; I have been smitten on the mouth in your courts of justice; I have been denied a hearing in my own church—and ye cared not for it. Ye went, one to his farm, and another to his merchandise.' And if ye shall ask, 'When, Lord?' He shall say unto you: 'Inasmuch as ye have done it to the least of these, my brethren, ye have done it unto me.'"
14. Mrs. Stowe thus was persuasive to religious people of that era by her showing mass violation of both Old and New Command principles and commands by Southern slave holders. When in 1862, she met President Abraham Lincoln, he gave her credit for leading Northerners to see slavery as it really was. Truly she was an effective Christian.
15. Her book had inspired the Tsar of Russia and and the King of Siam to free their slaves. Many people sing "Amazing Grace," a song by an ex-slave trader [John Newton, 1779, a mere seven years after the English Court in the 1772 Somerset case had declared slavery unlawful]. It was people such as Mrs. Stowe whose opposition to slavery led people such as him to repent.
16. But such principled opposition was unfortunately not successful in getting Southern slavers to repent. Their refusal to repent led to war when they attempted to overthrow the U.S. government after Lincoln was elected, and when that overthrow attempt failed, to secede. (See details provided by Henry Wilson.)
1. For 35 years, 1830-1865, William Lloyd Garrison published a newspaper, The Liberator, with a view to ending slavery. President Abraham Lincoln credited him with setting the freedom process in motion. "The logic and moral power of Garrison and the Anti-slavery people . . . And the army [not the U.S. 'religious right' clergy and churches] have done it all," freed the slaves. See Truman Nelson (History Writer), Documents of Upheaval: Selections from William Lloyd Garrison's THE LIBERATOR, 1831-1865 (NY: Hill and Wang, 1966), xvii.
"The central fact of Garrison's life was his religious faith. The Bible was the only book he ever really read." He wrote in "the language of the Old Testament" and "had the zeal . . . of a Biblical prophet, combined with apostolic dedication." See Prof Russell B. Nye, (History, Mich St Univ), William Lloyd Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers (Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1955), pp 199-200.
Garrison "demanded that all who called themselves Christian act like Christ. He wanted to convert them . . . He imitated Jesus in . . . affirmations of all-encompassing love." See Nelson, Documents of Upheaval, p xvi. He told freed slaves, "I espoused your cause because you were the children of a common Father, created in the same divine image, having the same inalienable rights." See Nye, Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, supra, p 199.
2. Garrison used the vehement style of the American revival movement. He was a result of a revival period, the "Great Awakening" (1740-1750) in American history—so much revival that some began to "come out" of sin (were "come-outers," a term based on Revelation 18:4), and to expect "the transformation of the world through mass conversions . . . to crush out the forces of sin."
b. "Garrison can best be understood in religious terms." He became so dedicated that at one point, he thought of becoming a missionary. See Prof George M. Frederickson (History, Northwestern Univ), William Lloyd Garrison (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, 1968), pp 4-5. Garrison set up the American Anti-Slavery Society (1833), and for 35 years, 1830-1865, published a newspaper, The Liberator, on a mission to lead to a major reform in America, the abolition of slavery. Slavery had been here since 1620.
3. As a youth, Garrison had learned in his church, "repent now, not gradually" (wife-beating, drunkenness, etc.)
b. The Methodists' error of postponing repentance on slavery, until it became impossible, was then known, as cited by Rev. William Goodell, Slavery and Anti-Slavery (1852), p 144.
c. Garrison never really read any book except the Bible. He came to be concerned about slavery as a result of a period of time he was in the South. As he walked about Baltimore, he saw slavery, and in the mansions from the second floors, heard screaming as slaves were being constantly whipped. (The striking end of bullwhips hits at o/a 900 mph).
4. Prior to his becoming an Abolitionist, and while he was in Baltimore, Garrison aided one slave who had 37 gashes in him. Slaves in transit for sale " were locked in filthy jails overnight while in transit, although they had committed no crime." See Nelson, Documents of Upheaval, p 1. Garrison checked church doctrine, and found that in the distant past, the church had taught that slavery is a sin. (In the Church History videos my local church has shown, church opposition to slavery was identified as one of the Roman Emperor's objections to Christianity). Exodus 21:16 and Deuteronomy 24:7 set death penalty; 1 Timothy 1:10 listed sins including men-stealing/slave trading. Continuing to hold a stolen person (modern term, kidnap victim) is banned. To make the ban as sweeping as possible, the ban is effective from ab initio, the very first millisecond, continuing until the penalty is imposed on the perpetrator (and subsequent transferees), with no statute of limitations.
5. Garrison found that slavery consisted of robbery (no pay), mass rape, murder, torture, adultery, with sales like live porno strip shows. Slavers were family destroyers, atheists who believed that rights come from government, not from God (though they say they're the "Bible Belt"—a cynical myth). Nye, Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, supra, p 45.
b. The 1860 census showed 588,000 mulatto women.
6. Garrison went to his minister, Lyman Beecher, father of Harriet Beecher Stowe, and reported this. He was rejected. The best to hope for was "gradualism" or "deportation." He talked and wrote against slavers by name. For his 29 Nov 1829 writing like that, the Maryland prosecutor charged him with sedition. Garrison was convicted, and fined. He refused to pay and was in jail 49 days in Baltimore. Nye, Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, supra, p 28; and State of Maryland v Garrison, 14 Am St Trials 291-298 (24 Feb 1830). In addition, he was sued for libel, and lost that case too. A fellow Abolitionist then paid the award, and he was released 5 June 1830.
7. This experience radicalized Garrison. He became more forceful than any prior American anti-slavery advocate. On 1 Jan 1831, he set up The Liberator to advocate freedom for slaves, not deportation. Nye, Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, supra, p 48. Blacks were discriminated against, had essentially no rights even up north, were banned from "white churches." "The news of a champion of Negro rights in Boston spread swiftly among the freedmen. Here was a man who seemed to care."
8. He had been an apprentice, the seven year program then in place to learn a trade. Apprenticeships were common then in America. In 1814, at age 9, he'd been apprenticed to a Massachusetts shoemaker. "The thread cut his fingers, and he remembered for years how his legs ached from holding the heavy [equipment]."—Nye, Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, p 8. Then his family moved to Baltimore for employment. So he was apprenticed to a cabinet maker. After six weeks, he was so lonesome for his Massachusetts friends, he ran away. The master "recaptured him [but] realizing that [he] was desperately unhappy, released him." The third apprenticeship worked, as a printer. So with that experience, "he looked upon the [issues] as a Negro looked upon them. Most people who read The Liberator . . . thought Garrison was black."
9. In understanding his impact, note that then "The churches were bitterly opposed to the [abolition] movement."—Frederickson, William Lloyd Garrison, p 134. And see James G. Birney, (Repented slaver, Pres Candidate, Liberty Party, 1840-4), The American Churches: The Bulwarks of American Slavery (Newburyport: Charles Whipple Pub, 1842). Lay attitudes of the time included anti-black books such as Cannibals All, and claims "that Negroes were not men, but animals, and therefore undeserving of freedom." See Nye, Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, p 47.
b. Slavers pretending to follow the Bible on slavery, cited verses supposedly allowing it under specifically identified circumstances. However, the slavers carefully prevented establishing a system to verify whether those criteria had been followed (e.g., no interviews at docks and auctions as to the basis-of-record for how they were originally enslaved), and banned slaves from testifying!
c. The Fugitive Slave Law banned adherence to the Bible command to not return fugitives.—Lewis Tappan, Fugitive Slave Bill (1850), p 28.
d. "[N]othing . . . has done so much to tolerate and perpetuate the sin in our midst, as the practice of the Church."—Rev. John G. Fee, Anti-Slavery Manual (1851), p 69.
|Note Garrison's analysis of U.S. Clergy: "disgraces to humanity . . . heathenish, filled with apologies for sin and sinners of the worst sort . . . . Bulwarks of Slavery . . . [and] accessories to the MANSTEALERS in the bloodiest of their crimes . . . Oh the rottenness of Christendom." Quoted by Macalester College Prof. James Brewer Stewart, William Lloyd Garrison and the Challenge of Emancipation (Arlington Heights, IL: Harlan Davidson, Inc, 1992), p 91.|
10. Strictly speaking, slavery was illegal and unconstitutional. English colonies had to obey English common law, which (if not always, had since at least King John and Magna Carta) banned slavery. Blacks who knew their rights, filed for writs of habeas corpus, and got freed. Cartwright (1569); Shanley (1762); James (1770); Somerset (1772); Holloway (1816); Aves (1836). Abolitionist Senator Charles Sumner, a former court reporter, referred to this principle in his well-reasoned analysis, "The Barbarism of Slavery," 36th Cong, 1 Sess, pp 2590-2603 (4 June 1860). See also the abolitionist book by William Goodell, Slavery and Anti-Slavery (New York: William Harned, 1852), pp. 49-51, 112.
|It was not until almost a century later that a court admitted in essence that
and similiar abolitionists were right—that the Constitution means what it says, not what government practice or courts, even the Supreme Court, pretend it means. Reference: Wuebker v James, 58 NYS2d 671, 677 (1944). (Details and Context).
In 1832, President Andrew Jackson vetoed a bill on constitutional grounds, using independent judgment despite a prior court ruling by the Supreme Court that had already upheld a similar law. But Jackson wrote:
"The Congress, the Executive, and the Court must each for itself be guided by its own opinion of the Constitution. Each public officer who takes an oath to support the Constitution swears that he will support it as he understands it, and not as it is understood by others. It is as much the duty of the House of Representatives, of the Senate, and of the President to decide upon the constitutionality of any bill or resolution which may be presented to them for passage or approval as it is of the supreme judges when it may be brought before them for judicial decision."
c. Pro-slavers especially from the "Bible-Belt" South in Congress demanded that such Bible-based habeas corpus laws be repealed ("tort reform" to restrict/eliminate the right to sue). And Congress in 1850 did in fact vote to do so, did vote "tort reform," did vote to preempt State personal liberty habeas corpus laws, did vote to restrict/eliminate accused slaves right to sue, right to present a defense against the accusation, right to "habeas corpus" litigation.
d. And the Supreme Court, under slaver domination, went to the extreme of declaring State personal liberty "habeas corpus" laws unconstitutional!! See, e.g.,
11. Such anti-rights laws and court decisions understandably alarmed Northerners, as they saw interfering with habeas corpus as an attack on people's rights as Americans.
|"Personal liberty, which is guaranteed to every citizen under our constitution and laws, consists of the right to locomotion, to go where one pleases, and when, and to do that which may lead to one's business or pleasure, only so far restrained as the rights of others may make it necessary for the welfare of all other citizens. . . .
"Any law which would place the keeping and safe conduct of another in the hands of even a conservator of the peace, unless for some breach of the peace committed in his presence, or upon suspicion of felony, would be most oppressive and unjust, and destroy all the rights which our Constitution guarantees." Pinkerton v Verberg, 78 Mich 573, 584; 44 NW 579, 582-583 (1889).
12. Garrison appealed to ministers to oppose slavery. But many instead took the opposite side, see Thieves (1843). For example, when Mexican President Santa Anna tried to enforce the Pope's 1829 guidance on abolition of slavery in Mexico (of which Texas was a part), many U.S. clergymen supported war against Mexico to steal Texas for the South and slavery. See, e.g., Rev. Parker Pillsbury, Forlorn Church (1847), pp 58-68; and Wendell and Francis Garrison (sons), William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879, Vol III, p 60. "Remember the Alamo!" And Davy Crockett. The Alamo fighters were fighting AGAINST liberty, FOR slavery. Santa Anna was against slavery (which had been banned by law 15 Sep 1829). See The War in Texas (Philadelphia: Merrihew & Gunn Pub, 1837), an original source history and analysis at the time. (Background).
13. Up North, "even blacks who had been born free were in danger of being kidnaped into slavery. The seizure of blacks . . . for sale into slavery . . . was frequent enough to be a nightmarish possibility for all but the very young and very old." See David E. Swift, Black Prophets of Justice: Activist Clergy Before the Civil War (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989), p 103.
14. Re freeing the slaves, "The churches were bitterly opposed to the movement." See Frederickson, William Lloyd Garrison, p 134. Ministers advocated excommunicating and lynching abolitionists, hanging them like Haman (Esther 7:10). A Georgia newspaper slogan was, "The cry of the whole South should be Death, Instant Death, to the Abolitionist, whenever he is caught." See Prof. Oscar Sherwin (English, City College NY), Prophet of Liberty: Wendell Phillips (NY: Bookman Associates, 1958), pp 49-50 and 53-54, and Birney, The American Churches: The Bulwarks of American Slavery, supra, p 8. Abolitionists (as in 1 Peter 2:12, the righteous being spoken against) were often deemed insane; a judge even made a ruling to that effect. See Sherwin, Prophet of Liberty: Wendell Phillips, pp 48, 57, and 638.
15. Garrison believed that Christianity's belief that "we are all one in Christ" (Galatians 3:28, not Jew, Greek, male, female, bond, free) would end prejudice. See Frederickson, William Lloyd Garrison, p 33. As it clearly had not done so in slavers, the conclusion is that pro-slavery believers were not Christian. Instead, they were atheists and/or idolaters, worshiping an idol, the "Union," the Constitution which they manipulated via the courts. See Nelson, Documents of Upheaval, p 99; and Prof. Oscar Sherwin (English, City College NY), Prophet of Liberty: Wendell Phillips (NY: Bookman Associates, 1958), p 140.
b. Mississippi's Governor Pettus admitted that such people as Garrison had succeeeded in educating people so well as to impact even "the estimation of other nations [of slavers as] barbarians, pirates, and robbers, unfit associates for Christians or civilized men." (Source, 26 Nov 1860 'Secession Message to Mississippi Legislature,' referenced in Allan Nevins, The Emergence of Lincoln, vol II [New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1950], section on secession in the Lower South, pp. 328-335.)
c. Slaver fathers who refused to acknowledge, much less, provide for, their children "had denied the faith and were worse than infidels" (I Timothy 5:8). Nonetheless, "some church officials opposed anti-slavery action. Garrison deemed that ministers who claimed that there was nothing in the New Testament against slavery (ignoring, e.g., I Timothy 1:10 (slave trading a sin) and James 5:4 (defrauding workers of pay) were "a brotherhood of thieves," and "the deadliest enemies of marriage, of the Bible, the weekly Sabbath, the Christian church . . . and of revivals of religion." They preached
"a religion that apologizes for concubinage, polygamy, heathenism—a religion that murders and steals." The Presbyterians and Congregationalists "stole babies," Southern Baptists "sold girls for wine for their communion tables." "[T]he American Church is" "steeped in blood and pollution" so we must "turn from it with loathing and abhorrence." Nye, Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, 136-137.
16. He explained so well that an escaped slave, Frederick Douglass, decided in 1839 to enter the anti-slavery movement, and became active to aid his peers. See Kenneth C. Davis, Don't Know Much About The Civil War (NY: Wm Morrow & Co, 1996), p 75.
17. Garrison believed in practical Christianity, reasoning that, If Messiah will do it on His return, do it now!!, as "a self-evident truth, that, whatever the gospel is designed to destroy at any period of the world, being contrary to it, ought NOW to be abandoned." 18-20 Sep 1838. See Wendell and Francis Garrison (sons), William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879 (NY: The Century Co, 1885), Vol I, p iii. See also: “The moral duty of man consists of imitating the moral goodness and benificence of God manifested in the creation towards all his creatures. Everything of persecution and revenge between man and man, and everything of cruelty to animals is a violation of moral duty.”—Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason (1795) (Quote).
18. $ data. An example annual white pay, $125. Slave brings in $250. Sells for $1,000. But "choice stock," "fancy girls," is $2,500, at New Orleans brothels. Buyers examined the merchandise, so they were dressed accordingly. See William C. Davis, ed., The Civil War: Brother Against Brother: The War Begins (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1983), pp 50-51. It wasn't bad enough that churches taught, "servants, obey your masters," justifying forced prostitution (ignoring the Genesis 34 precedent on rape, the execution of the entire city where the rapist lived, a precedent which, if followed, would have forthwith ended Southern slavery instantly). There were even slave auctions at churches. One minister preached better if he whipped his woman slave just before church; other weeks, he was bland in speaking.
19. Garrison in effect became the "teacher" of Harriet Beecher Stowe. He got her father Lyman to change. He got his minister in other words to change sides!! And his technique was remarkable. He'd denounce him, and other ministers, by name in his newspaper. One example he cited was the American Bible Society claim that it would give a Bible to every family in America. But the ABS gave none to slaves as it was illegal for them to read. The ABS ignored such laws everywhere except in the U.S. Garrison denounced ABS' hypocrisy.
20. Back then, 1830's, there were no wire services. It was the custom of newspaper editors to send copies of their newspapers to their colleagues, other editors. Garrison followed this practice. He mailed copies of his anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator to Southern editors! As it was illegal to teach slaves to read, he printed a weekly cartoon of oppression, so they'd see it when they went to pick up their "owners" newspapers! Nye, William Lloyd Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, p 50. Southern editors were enraged, and vehemently denounced him and his writings, thus widely circulating his material, thus unintentionally enhancing his influence!!! Nye, Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, p 53. Georgia passed a $5,000 reward for his arrest. See Nelson, Documents of Upheaval, p 39. North Carolina provided for prison on first publication, and death on the second. See Nelson, Documents of Upheaval, p 38.
21. Garrison's effectiveness was further enhanced when, on August 13, 1831, just after he began publishing The Liberator,
a black minister, Nat Turner, had about 300 slaves 'resign,' i.e., there was a major kidnap victims' (slave) revolt. The slaves were almost unarmed. The militia attacked them, "A shower of rain . . . wet the powder so much that they were compelled to retreat." See Nelson, Documents of Upheaval, p 31. 120 blacks were killed. See Nelson, Documents of Upheaval, p 36. 55 whites were killed. See Frederickson, William Lloyd Garrison, p 24.Southerners blamed Garrison! Southerners threatened to kill him with poison, daggers, whatever. See Nye, Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, p 53. It was made illegal for blacks to read his paper. Nye, Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, p 54. In 1835, Garrison was nearly lynched in Boston, a mob put a rope around his neck, and he was saved only by being jailed "in protective custody." Pro-slavers installed a gallows in front of his house. Such attacks upon his freedom of speech and press, led many Northerners to feel that their rights too were being attacked by the South.
22. One rampant Southern sin was the forbidding of slaves to testify in court, in direct violation of the Leviticus 5:1 principle commanding that everyone testify. This was just one example among slavers' many sins. Slavers' prated about alleged Biblical authorizations for "slavery," but banned the only method for a person to testify that none of those principles had been adhered to in his/her individual situation.
|The North fought to save the Union, the idol, when the South seceded. The North did NOT fight to free the slaves. That myth was not invented until after the War, a myth invented to obscure the real truth, the North's Union-idolatry.
Racism in the North had left slavery alone, and was willing to continue it forever; a proposed constitutional amendment was passed in early 1861, to legalize slavery forever, in an effort to save the Union-idol, from the South's secession activities. Adopting a 'slavery-forever' Amendment by 2/3 vote of Congress conclusively proves that the North did NOT fight to end slavery; that goal came along long after.
The North's quick abandonment of the ex-slaves to their oppressors and lynchers in the South immediately after the War, conclusively proves for all time, the extreme Northern callousness and unconcern for the ex-slaves as people.
Pro-North apologists who ignore these type facts, are simply ignorant of the historical record. Many typically haven't even examined the factual record.
Bottom line Civil War fact: One set of idolaters (Southern pro-slavery idolaters) were at war against another set of idolaters (Northern Union-idolaters).
For more on this idolatry, see, e.g., Profs. Harry R. Warfel, Ralph H. Gabriel, and Stanley T. Williams, The American Mind, Vol. II (New York: American Book Co, 1937 and 1947), pp 1230-1231: "American economic leaders, frightened after the World War by the rising tide of social protest, turned for security to the Constitution of the United States. They were joined by thousands of their fellow countrymen who, appalled by the flux of a swiftly moving world, craved stability in an age of change. As a result, a cult of the Constitution appeared, for which the document of 1787 became a symbol of security. The Constitution was conceived to be the repository of the eternal verities and also the ultimate guarantee of protection for both property and liberty. . . . The recognized high priest of the cult of the Constitution after the World War was James M. Beck . . . solicitor general of the United States from 1921 to 1925." (More.)
The number of genuinely-concerned-for-slaves people in the North was miniscule; few were ever active abolitionists. Attempted lynching of abolitionists, who were blamed for upsetting the South!!, continued AFTER Lincoln was elected.
23. Garrison was intensely opposed to Union-worship, Union idolatry, a concept now forgotten.
b. He noted that in Isaiah 28:15 and 18, God said that rebellious Ancient Israel had made a "covenant with death and an agreement with hell." So he used that term in every issue to describe the Constitution. He publicly burned a copy on July 4!!, and the Fugitive Slave law and Court orders for it. Nye, Garrison and the Humanitarian Reformers, 164.
c. There were no Biblical precedents for recovering fugitive slaves. The precedents were to the contrary, e.g., 1 Samuel 22:2 (about 400 fugitives gathered to the exiled David), and 1 Samuel 25:10 (significant numbers of servants fleeing masters). But no precedent of recovering anyone is cited.
d. The duty of righteous Israelites was to love strangers, widows, orphans, the afflicted and powerless generally, not oppress them (Exodus 22:22; Leviticus 19:13 and 34; Deuteronomy 24:14; etc.). The overarching Exodus precedent on dealing with slave holders was:
24. Garrison spoke in the style of Jesus, with "affirmations of all-encompassing love." See Nelson, Documents of Upheaval, p xv. But on the other hand, he admitted the example of the ancient Egyptians [see description by Rev. John Rankin] under the Pharaohs, persisting in enslaving people "until some sudden destruction come upon them." As God does not tolerate unrepented of sin indefinitely, the bottom line was, "Love God and man in his image or He will kill you!" See Nelson, Documents of Upheaval, p xviii. (Lewis Tappan and other abolitionists said similarly in Proceedings , p 39).
25. Due to Garrison's vehemence and dedication (he published 35 volumes), he led the way for other abolitionists. He repeatedly denounced the hypocrisy of the churches, and was in turn denounced. To him, most ministers refused to repent. But fortunately Beecher was one who did.
26. It was an issue in that era, could women speak up publicly? Even some reform-minded Northerners who were anti-slavery said no. So he took up "women's rights" as a side issue, so that they would be allowed to participate in the cause. (After the War, he was involved in the temperance movement.)
27. Slaver joy in hurting people was cited by Rev. John Rankin in 1823 (Letters, p 39). Garrison came to understand the vile slaver mind, a demonized mind, which culminated in willingness to commit mass atrocities.
b. Once the Civil War came, Garrison warned Pres. Lincoln, "prophesied" that "as there is no sin without a sinner," so the Bible-Belt South, filled "with thoroughly demonized spirits," would commit atrocities. See Wendell and Francis Garrison (sons), William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879, Vol IV, p 25. Garrison's analysis was correct:
"By their fruits shall ye know them." Matthew 7:16, 20. Such atrocities were the "fruit" produced by Southern politicians, 'white-trash'-manipulators, pro-slavery clergy, liars, pretenders to be "Christian" when they were in fact militant vile, depraved atheists. Nay, they were worse than atheists: regular atheists do not pretend to be Christian.
Slavers "have turned rebels against Infinite Justice [God] and have joined the enemy of all mankind [the devil] in subjecting Humanity to beastly servitude."--Edward C. Rogers, Slavery Illegality in All Ages and Nations (Boston: Bela Marsh, 1855), p 13.
Note a Southern clergyman's admission of 75% of Southern Christians themselves being "of the devil."--Quoted in Rev. Stephen S. Foster, Brotherhood of Thieves (1843), pp 14-15.
|Note explanatory background data such as this:
With a depraved clergy and populace, depraved politicians are part of the system.
28. In sharp contrast to atheistic, depraved, vile pro-slavery clergy, Garrison believed intensely in Christ's principle, "turn the other cheek" and opposed violence. So how would slavery be solved? With violence on only one side—the slavers? His answer was, God would take care of it, likely via the Old Testament style.
29. So that he would not be arrested for incendiarism, he published carefully. He did include 'letters to the editor,' saying, 'if the Founding Fathers were right to revolt and use violence against King George III, why couldn't the same approach be used to end slavery?' His answer was, he'd cite Christ's teaching. And since this was America, other people could cite the American Revolution precedent. The Revolution precedent would show America its inconsistency—some people, white people, could use force and violence and war to defend their rights, but blacks couldn't. That's inconsistent.
30. Garrison thought that politics were not the way to solve the slavery problem, as politicians would always compromise. Garrison repeatedly exposed Pres. Lincoln's unwillingness to proceed expeditiously. At one point, Lincoln even offered the South a deal, the government would pay for the slaves, if emancipation were completed by the year 1900!!—37 years in the future. See The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Vol V (1861-1862). Ed. Roy P. Basler (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ Press, 1953), citing Lincoln's Annual Message to Congress, 1 Dec 1862, pp 518-537, specifically p 530. Garrison denounced this offer.
31. Unfortunately, Garrison was 60 when the Civil War ended, and after a lifetime of poverty, fighting slavery, he discontinued The Liberator. So when the slaves were only half-freed (no land, even though even the Tsar of Russia had given land to the serfs when freeing them), Garrison's voice on behalf of the half-freed slaves was much reduced. The horrible abuses then heaped by the demonized, vile, depraved South on them were so ultra-extreme and vicious that Garrison's successor as President of the American Anti-Slavery Society, Wendell Phillips, deemed that the South had won the Civil War, what was happening was so bad as to constitute "a practical surrender to the Confederacy" with Jefferson Davis becoming the U.S. President. See Sherwin, Prophet of Liberty: Wendell Phillips, supra, pp 538-540. [See also Prof. David Brion Davis, "Free At Last: The Enduring Legacy of the South's Civil War Victory," New York Times (26 August 2001)].
32. Note that there are still pro-south writers angry at him, and denounce him. His "so-called Christian contemporaries . . . judged him . . . not by the Bible to which he constantly . . . referred them, but by temporary considerations." See Wendell and Francis Garrison (sons), William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879, Vol I, p xiii. One 1965 author saw so much anti-Garrisonism that he concluded, "Garrison today is denied both logic and moral power." See Nelson, Documents of Upheaval, p xviii. He is called extreme. He replied, "No! No! Tell a man . . . to moderately rescue his wife from [rape]." See Frederickson, William Lloyd Garrison, p 23.
33. President Abraham Lincoln invited him to attend the ceremony of re-raising the flag over Fort Sumter on 14 April 1865. In the end, Lincoln had credited him with setting the freedom process in motion. "The logic and moral power of Garrison and the Anti-slavery people . . . And the army have done it all," freed the slaves. See Nelson, Documents of Upheaval, p xvii. So one of the ideas of early Christianity, no slavery, finally 1800 years later came to pass here in America, the only nation that ended slavery with a major war and about a million casualties (4% of the population).
34. The eminent John Wesley had had his dying wish fulfilled, for the end of slavery, "Go on, in the Name of God and in the power of His might, till even American slavery, the vilest that ever saw the sun, shall vanish away before you."
35. Garrison's impact was great.
(a) As Lincoln said, he ended slavery. (b) He had changed the pre-1830 abolitionist movement to see the "all men are created equal" words of the Declaration of the Independence without the "white-manism" of his era (cf. modern terms: "white supremacism" and "racism"), (c) he got rid of his predecessors' notion that the solution was to kick the blacks out of the country; and (d) he got Northerners to see that the slavers' attack on black rights was an attack on their rights as well, by their attacks on his freedom of speech. See Frederickson, William Lloyd Garrison, p 3.
36. Garrison's was the last reform movement that quoted the Bible, chapter and verse, to prove reform was needed. In 1885, people said there would never be another reform movement like that, it was "probably the last great reform that the world is likely to see based upon the Bible and carried out with a millennial fervor." "The authority of the Bible, as an infallible and universally applicable guide to conduct, reached then its highest pitch." See Wendell and Francis Garrison (sons), William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879 (NY: The Century Co, 1885), Vol III, p xiii.
|Garrison "is in so true and full a sense the creator of the anti-slavery movement that I may well say I have never uttered an anti-slavery word which I did not owe to his inspiration. I have never done an anti-slavery act of which the primary merit was not his. More than that: in my experience of nigh 30 years, I have never met the anti-slavery man or woman, who had struck any effectual blow at the slave system in this country, whose action was not born out of the heart and conscience of William Lloyd Garrison," said Wendell Phillips, May 1865, "at the annual meeting of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Soceity," quoted by Prof. Oscar Sherwin (English, City College NY), Prophet of Liberty, supra, p 515.
According to Prof. James Brewer Stewart, William Lloyd Garrison and the Challenge of Emancipation (Arlington Heights, IL: Harlan Davidson, Inc., 1992), Garrison's influence included, e.g.,
37. Later, pro-slavery clergy lied about Garrison's impact, by claiming that "slavery was abolished . . . as the result of" the churches' actions, not his. Garrison's clerical enemies went so far as to allege "that the abolitionists, [including] Garrison, did more harm than good." See the exposé of such lying by genuine abolitionist Parker Pillsbury, Acts of the Anti-Slavery Apostles, supra, p 378. And see the real truth about many U.S. clergy, by Rev. Stephen S. Foster, Brotherhood of Thieves (1843).
38. The Supreme Court said “that this is a Christian nation” in Holy Trinity Church v United States, 143 US 457, 471; 12 S Ct 511, 516; 36 L Ed 226 (1892). Wherefore, in seeking legal remedies, e.g., for reparations with respect to slavery and its continuing impact, the evidence herein may be useful.
b. Due to Garrison's Bible-oriented emphasis, this site (to avoid duplication of what you already know) will only state other aspects, in quick context:
40. Back when clergy and law enforcement personnel had roles in the non-smoker movement, Michigan under three-term Governor Fred M.Warner, abolished cigarettes by law, MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216, in 1909. Since then, having lost clergy involvement, the movement has lost moral focus. It barely seeks to protect children, and that only as a health issue. This amoral narrowness omits moral aspects, tobacco's abulia-related link to suicide, alcoholism, promiscuity, abortion, drunk driving, drug abuse, and crime. Nineteenth century anti-tobacco writings, some by clergymen (e.g., George Trask), included much more than the mere health issue, important as that is. Man does not live by bread—health—alone. (Deuteronomy 8:3; Matthew 4:4; Luke 4:4)
41. The point of anti-cigarette laws such as Michigan's, and their essential effect, was and is to make a cigarette smoke-free society, thus prevent (a) tobacco injuries aka diseases and costs, and (b) more significantly, prevent abulia-related effects, e.g., suicide, alcoholism, promiscuity, Alzheimers' disease, pornography, AIDS, drunk driving, drug abuse, abortion, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), and 90% of crime. Doctors know how.
42. The law was adopted in 1909 back when religion had more impact, so people were more aware that mental processes (activities in the mind) have a role in sin; "lust" when it has "conceived" "brings forth sin." (James 1:15). The end thereof is "death." Tobacco is a mind-altering drug. Sin spreads. Cigarette-selling, like any sin, may seem small or a "least commandment" issue at first. (Zechariah 4:10; Matthew 5:19). Cigarette selling and harm supposedly merely violates minor, small or "least" commands: Do not curse the deaf nor put a stumbling block before the blind. (Leviticus 19:14). Children are blind and deaf to the cigarette danger. If fire (such as from a cigarette) leads to harm, money damages are mandatory. (Exodus 22:6).
43. "Small" sin violating "least" commands, spreads, leads to more violations. If non-human agency (such as an ox or tobacco) kills a human, those who knew that tendency (ox owner, tobacco pusher) are to executed. (Exodus 21:28-29). That law is unenforced, so the sin of cigarette-selling leads to more violations. Do not take revenge, as the Confederate product does on the hated Yankees; instead love your neighbor as yourself. (Leviticus 19:18; James 2:8). Do not harm strangers, e.g., children in a store where tobacco is illegally sold. (Exodus 22:21). Do not afflict (nor cause) widows and orphans. (Exodus 22:22). Do not follow a multitude to do evil, e.g., sell tobacco. (Exodus 23:2). Do not smite a fellow human with guile, e.g., abulia-causing substances or slow-motion death. (Exodus 21:14). Officials must not accept gifts (campaign contributions). (Exodus 23:8). Violation of the latter command, and buying endorsements by prominent people and lawyers, has led to the mass violation of the foregoing commands. Loving one's neighbor as oneself fulfills the law. (Romans 13:8).
44. Tobacco is a mind-altering drug. It seems "small." (Zechariah 4:10). And "least." (Matthew 5:19). The word "abulia" is so small, and anti-tobacco commandments seem so "least," most never heard of it or them. Ministers mostly refuse to preach them, even though the deaths exceed those of Manasseh's (2 Kings 21:16). So due to the mass commandment-breaking, it leads to evil effects our paper explaining the law (medically and legally) documents. Sin spreads.
45. Cigarettes arise as revengeful Confederates and their accessories do not love their neighbor as themselves. Unrepentant Confederates in the tobacco business, changed the formula for tobacco to add coumarin, for rat poison, and began a crop raising and harvesting project that involves inserting millions of pounds of this poison into cigarettes. See our paper explaining the law and the reasoning underlying it.
46. Still harming the hated Yankees, they perpetuate and condone the vast illegal sales of cigarettes to unsuspecting children and the resultant foreseeable deaths of tens of millions. Unlike the Good Samaritan, too many people look the other way when they see this suffering; they lack love. So Christians, few as they are who are involved, are doing good in trying to reverse this state of affairs. It's hard, I know. Here in Michigan, despite my best efforts (the web writer herein has been advocating and writing on this subject for nearly twenty years) and what others have been doing for even longer, we cannot even get prosecutors, nor Attorney General, nor sheriffs, nor Governor-controlled state police, nor state health department, nor local police, nor court, to begin to enforce the law. How many must die before the enforcers begin to enforce?
47. That unloving mentality of death spreads: in the U.S., there was the sin of not loving neighbors first Indians, then slaves. The latter unloving mentality spread into the attitude of revenge after the Civil War cited in our paper explaining the law; mushroomed into the tens of millions of cigarette deaths occurring from abulic (addictive) tobacco smoking; and is further mushrooming in the recent two decades into additional millions of abortions a horrifying next step that in hindsight is easy to detect. Sin (unloving mentality) spreads. We see it do so over the centuries. Mental processes conceive. The mind has an impact. The mind-altering starter drug exacerbates that impact. Its abulic effect has an impact. We must break the cycle at the mental process stage the initial mind-altering drug stage, the cigarette stage.
48. Garrison tried. He had more success faster than many reformers. But due to his age (60) by 1865, and having to substantially reduce his activities, he was unsuccessful during his lifetime on the tobacco issue. He died in 1879. But he left a legacy that in a mere thirty years led to the 1909 Michigan law banning adulterated and deleterious cigarettes.
49. To carry on the legacy of the anti-slavery reformers, and assist in controlling the Confederate-caused cigarette epidemic, please write a letter seeking enforcement of MCL § 750.27, MSA § 28.216 to Michigan Governor John Engler and Attorney General Jennifer M. Granholm.
Pro-slavery clergymen are examples of what Paul meant in 2 Corinthians 11:13-15 in referring to false clergymen, deceitful workers, like Satan, pretending to be for the right. Such false clergymen had denied slaves the Gospel Message of love, freedom, salvation, and the benefits in this life including good health and financial prosperity (3 John 2). They had limited their message to slaves, emphasizing, 'servants, obey your masters,' disregarding the basic Bible point that man-stealers are not your masters! They are, instead, criminals to be executed as per Exodus 21:16 and Deuteronomy 24:7.
Related Web Sites By This Author
Testimony Opposing Chemical Slavery Billboards
Testimony Opposing More Prisons
Widespread Governmental Corruption and Racism
A Crime Prevention Concept Dating From The Abolitionist Era
Changing "War on Drugs" Priorities
List of 99 Abolitionists
"How to Escape Slavery" (One Method)
Library of Congress Data
New York Memorial Action
Ohio Activist in Underground Railroad
Newspapers Advocating Anti-Slavery
Rep. Maxine Water's Bill H.R. 1681 to Concentrate
Federal Resources Aimed at The Prosecution
of Drug Offenses on Those Offenses That Are Major
University of California - Davis Site
For Further Reading:
Writings by Activists of the Anti-Slavery Era
Analyses by Subsequent Scholars
Andrews, Sidney, The South Since The War (Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1866), especially pp 1-11 and 21-28 (identifies Southerners' murderous attitudes, deeming murder a right, underlying their attitude toward others)
Balmes, Jaime Luciano (1810-1848), El Protestantismo Comparado Con El Catolicismo (Barcelona, Spain: Brusi, 1849) translated into English by C. J. Hanford and Robert Kershaw, European Civilization: Protestantism and Catholicity Compared (Baltimore: Murphy & Co, 1850) (has church anti-slavery documents in Latin: examples, e.g., from years 441 (censuring slavers), 549 (church buildings as refuges for escaping slaves), 566 (excommunication-of-slavers proviso), 583 (church issuance of freedom papers), 585 (use church property to free slaves), 595 (freeing entrants to monastic life), 616 (liberty restoration proviso), 625 (ban new slaves, use church property to free current slaves), 666 (ban shaving slaves), 844 (use church property to free slaves), 922 (defines slave-trade as homicide), 1102 (ban slave trade))
Barnes, Albert (1798-1870), Inquiry into the Scriptural Views of Slavery (Philadelphia, Boston: Perkins & Purves; B. Perkins, 1846; rev ed, Philadelphia: Parry & McMillan, 1857)
Barnes, Albert, The Church and Slavery (Philadelphia: Parry & McMillan, 1857)
Barnes, Gilbert H., The Antislavery Impulse, 1830-1844 (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1933 and 1941)
Barnes, Gilbert H. and Dwight L. Dumond, eds., Am Historical Ass'n, Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld, And Sarah Grimké (NY: D. Appleton-Century Co, 1934)
Barrow, David, Rev. (1753-1819), Pres, Kentucky Abolition Society, Involuntary, Unmerited, Perpetual, Absolute, Hereditary Slavery Examined on the Principles of Nature, Reason, Justice, Policy, and Scripture (Lexington, Ky: D. & C. Bradford, 1808)
Benezet, Anthony (1713-1784), Observations on the Inslaving, Importing, and Purchasing of Negroes With Some Advice Thereon, Extracted from the Epistle of the Yearly-Meeting of the People called Quakers, Held at London in the Year 1748 (Germantown, Pa.: Christopher Sower, 1760)
Benezet, Anthony, A Short Account of That Part of Africa Inhabited by the Negroes (Philadelphia: W. Dunlap, 1762)
Benezet, Anthony, A Caution to Great Britain and Her Colonies in a Short Representation of the Calamitous State of the Enslaved Negroes in the British Dominions (Philadelphia, 1767)
Benezet, Anthony, A Mite Cast into the Treasury, or, Observations on Slave-keeping (Philadelphia, 1772)
Benezet, Anthony, The Potent Enemies of America Laid Open: Being Some Account of the Baneful Effects Attending the Use of Distilled Spirituous Liquors, and the Slavery of the Negroes (Philadelphia: Joseph Crukshank, 1774)
Benezet, Anthony, The Case of our Fellow-Creatures, the Oppressed Africans, Respectfully Recommended to the Serious Consideration of the Legislature of Great Britain (London: J. Phillips, 1783)
Benezet, Anthony, Short Observations on Slavery: Introductory to Some Extracts from the Writing of the Abbé Raynal on That Important Subject (Philadelphia: Enoch Story, 1785)
Benezet, Anthony, Views of American Slavery, Taken a Century Ago (Philadelphia: Association of Friends for the Diffusion of Religious and Useful Knowledge, 1858)
Bird, Francis W. (1809-1894), Review of Gov. [Nathaniel] Banks' Veto of the Revised [Law] Code On Account of Its Authorizing the Enrolment of Colored Citizens in the [State] Militia, (Boston: John P. Jewett & Co, 1860)
Birney, James G., Letter to Ministers and Elders on the Sin of Holding Slaves, and The Duty of Immediate Emancipation (New York: S.W. Benedict, 1834)
Birney, James G., Letter to the Hon. Mr. Elmore, of South Carolina (1836)
Birney, James G., A Letter on the Political Obligations of Abolitionists (Boston: Dow & Jackson, 1839)
Birney, James G., The American Churches, the Bulwarks of American Slavery (London, Thomas Ward, 1840, reprinted Newburyport: Charles Whipple Pub, 1842, reprinted Concord, N.H.: Parker Pillsbury, 1855 and 1885)
Birney, James G., The Sinfulness of Slaveholding in All Circumstances Tested by Reason and Scripture (Detroit: C. Willcox, 1846)
Bourne, George, Rev. (1780-1845), The Book and Slavery Irreconcilable With Animadversions Upon Dr. Smith's Philosophy (Philadelphia: J. M. Sanderson & Co, 1816) (In reprisal for his identifying slavery as sin, the Virginia Presbyterian Church then fired him on a charge of heresy!) (Context)
Bourne, George, Rev., An Address to the Presbyterian Church, Enforcing the Duty of Excluding All Slaveholders from The "Communion of Saints" (New York: 1833)
Bourne, George, Rev., Picture of Slavery in the United States of America, Being A Practical Illustration of Voluntaryism and Republicanism (Glasgow: W. R. M'Phim, 1834, 1835)
Bourne, George, Rev., Picture of Slavery in the United States of America (Middletown, Conn: E. Hunt, 1834)
Bourne, George, Rev., Man-stealing and Slavery Denounced by the Presbyterian and Methodist Churches Together with an Address to All the Churches (Boston: Garrison & Knapp, 1834)
Bourne, George, Rev., Slavery Illustrated in Its Effects Upon Women and Domestic Society (Boston: I. Knapp Pub, 1837)
Bourne, George, Rev., A Condensed Anti-Slavery Bible Argument (NY: S. W. Benedict, 1845)
Bowditch, William I. (1819-1909), White Slavery in the United States (New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1855)
Branagan, Thomas (1774-1843), A Preliminary Essay on the Oppression of the Exiled Sons of Africa (Philadelphia: J.W. Scott, 1804)
Brooke, Samuel, Slavery and the Slaveholder's Religion, as Opposed to Christianity (Cincinnati: Brooke, 1846)
Carpenter, Rev. Russell Lant (1816-1892), Observations on American Slavery, After a Year's Tour in the United States (London: Edward T. Whitfield, 1852)
Caruthers, Eli W., Rev. (1793-1865), American Slavery and The Immediate Duty of Southern Slaveholders (North Carolina, 1821)
Chapman, John Jay (1862-1933), William Lloyd Garrison (Boston: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1913; 2d ed., rev and enl. New York: Moffat, Yard and Co, 1921; reprinted 1974 and 1983) (cited Garrison as a clear-headed person heavily relying on biblical principles)
Cheever, George Barrell, Rev. (1807-1890), God Against Slavery and the Freedom and Duty of the Pulpit to Rebuke It as a Sin Against God (Cincinnati: American Reform Tract and Book Society; and New York: J. H. Ladd, 1857)
Cheever, George B., Rev., Responsibility of the Church and Ministry Respecting the Sin of Slavery (Boston: J. P. Jewett Pub, 1858)
Cheever, George B., Rev., The Curse of God Against Political Atheism: With Some of the Lessons of the Tragedy at Harper's Ferry: A Discourse Delivered in the Church of the Puritans, New York, on Sabbath Evening, Nov. 6, 1859 (Boston: Walker, Wise, 1859)
Child, Lydia Maria Francis (1802-1880), An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans (Boston: Allen and Ticknor Pub, 1833)
Clarkson, Thomas (1760-1846), History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolishment of the African Slave Trade by the British Parliament (1839)
Clarkson, Thomas, A Letter to the Clergy of Various Denominations, and to the Slave-holding Planters, in the Southern Parts of the United States of America (London: Johnston and Barrett, 1841)
Colony v Mark and Phillis, Negro Slaves, 11 Am St Trials 511-527 (Mass, Aug 1755) (poison for freedom case)
Colver, Rev. Nathaniel, The Fugitive Slave Bill; or, God's Laws Paramount to the Laws of Men (Boston, 1850)
Davis, Prof David Brion (History, Cornell), "The Emergence of Immediatism in British and American Antislavery Thought," 49 Mississippi Valley Historical Rev 209-230 (Sep 1962)
Davis, Prof David Brion, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1967)
Davis, Prof David Brion, The Slave Power Conspiracy and the Paranoid Style (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969 repr. 1982)
Davis, Prof David Brion, Was Thomas Jefferson an Authentic Enemy of Slavery? An Inaugural Lecture delivered before the University of Oxford on 18 February 1970 (Oxford, Clarendon, 1970)
Davis, Prof David Brion, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770-1823 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999)
Davis, Prof David Brion (Yale), In the Image of God: Religion, Moral Values, and Our Heritage of Slavery (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001)
Duberman, Martin, B., ed., The Antislavery Vanguard: New Essays on the Abolitionists (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965 reprinted 1991)
Dumond, Prof. Dwight L. (History, Univ of Mich), Antislavery: The Crusade for Freedom in America (NY: W. W. Norton & Co, 1961) (Excerpt)
Edmundson, William (Quaker), Letter to Colonial Slavers: Slavery Incompatible With Christianity (1676)
Egerton, Sydney (Rep, Ohio), 36th Cong, 2 Sess, 127-129 (31 Jan 1861) (Re truth, "I will not compromise . . . slavery is a sin, an outrage against humanity, and an insult to God . . . the crowning iniquity, the most ghastly atrocity [requiring] emancipation.")
Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803-1882), The Emancipation of the Negroes in the British West Indies: An Address (London: J. Chapman, 1844)
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, "The Fugitive Slave Law: There Is Infamy In The Air, 3 May 1851," in The Complete Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Centenary ed., 12 vols (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 1903-1904), Vol XI, pp 177-214.
Fee, John Gregg, Rev. (1816-1901), An Anti-slavery Manual Being an Examination, In the Light of the Bible and of Fact, Into the Moral and Social Wrongs of American Slavery, With a Remedy for the Evil (Maysville, Ky.: Herald Office, Pub, 1848)
Fee, Rev. John G., Rev., An Anti-Slavery Manual, or, The Wrongs of American Slavery Exposed By the Light of the Bible and of Facts, with A Remedy for the Evil, 2d ed (New York: William Harned Pub, 1851)
Fee, Rev. John G., Non-fellowship with Slaveholders the Duty of Christians (New York: John A. Gray, Pub, 1851 and 1855)
Fee, Rev. John G., The Sinfulness of Slaveholding Shown by Appeals to Reason and Scripture (New-York: John A. Gray, 1851)
Fee, Rev. John G., Colonization: The Present Scheme of Colonization Wrong, Delusive, and Retards Emancipation (Cincinnati, Ohio: American Reform Tract and Book Society, 1857)
Filler, Louis B., The Crusade Against Slavery (New York: Harper and Bros, 1960)
Fitch, Charles (1805-1844), Slaveholding Weighed in the Balance of Truth, and its Comparative Guilt Illustrated (1837)
Foner, Philip S., Frederick Douglass, Selections From His Writings (New York: International Publishers, 1945)
Foner, Philip S., The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, 5 vols (New York, International Publishers, 1950) (Compare Vol I pp 217-218 and 259-260 with, e.g., Vol II pp 350-352 to note Douglass' transition in constitutional analysis—from the Garrison view to the Goodell-Spooner view—the same transition as independently made by this web writer 144 years later)
Foner, Philip S., Three Who Dared: Prudence Crandall, Margaret Douglass, Myrtilla Miner: Champions of Antebellum Black Education (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1984)
Foster, Stephen S. (1809-1881), The Brotherhood of Thieves, or A True Picture of The American Church and Clergy (New-London: William Bolles Pub, 1843; reprinted Concord, N.H.: Parker Pillsbury, 1884; and New York: Arno Press, 1969)
Garnet, Rev. Henry Highland (1815-1882), An Address to the Slaves of the United States of America (16 August 1843: Troy, New York: J. H. Tobbitt Pub, 1843 and 1848)
Gordon v Duncan, 3 Mo 385 (1834) (back pay [reparations] during pendency of successful case of slave winning freedom)
Harrold, Stanley, The Abolitionists and the South, 1831-1861 (Univ Press of Kentucky, Aug 1999)
Hart, Albert Bushnell (1854-1943), Slavery and Abolition, 1831-1841 (New York; London: Harper, 1906 reprinted New York: New American Library, 1969 )
Harwood, Prof. Thomas F. (History, Louisiana State Univ), "British Evangelical Abolitionism and American Churches in the 1830's," 28 Journal of Southern History 287-306 (August 1962)
Heyrick, Elizabeth, C. (1769-1851), Immediate, Not Gradual Abolition (London: F. Westley Pub, 1824)
Heyrick, Elizabeth C., Apology for Ladies' Anti-Slavery Associations (London: J. Hatchery & Son, 1828)
Heyrick, Elizabeth C., Appeal to the Hearts and Consciences of British Women (Leiceister: A. Cockshaw Pub, 1828)
Heyrick, Elizabeth C., No British Slavery, or, An Invitation to the People to Put A Speedy End to It (Birmingham (Engl): B. Hudson Pub, 1829)
Heyrick, Elizabeth C., The Relation of the Pulpit to Slavery: Letter to a Minister of the Gospel (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Ladies' Anti-Slavery Society, 1836)
Hoh, John L., Jr., Branded Hand of Jonathan Walker (2000)
Johnson, Oliver (1809-1889), William Lloyd Garrison and His Times, or, Sketches of the Anti-slavery Movement in America, and of The Man Who Was Its Founder and Moral Leader (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co, 1881 reprinted, Miami, Fla: Mnemosyne Pub. Co., 1969)
Keefer, Justus, Slavery: Its Sin, Moral Effects, and Certain Death (1864) (UM PDF Version)
Keith, George, An Exhortation & Caution to Friends Concerning Buying or Keeping of Negroes (New York: 1693)
Kenrick, John (1755-1833), Horrors of Slavery in Two Parts (Cambridge: Hilliard and Metcalf, 1817)
Korngold, Ralph, Two Friends of Man: The Story of William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips and Their Relationship with Abraham Lincoln (Boston: Little, Brown, 1950)
Lay, Benjamin [1677-1759], All Slave-keepers That Keep the Innocent in Bondage Apostates Pretending to Lay Claim to the Pure & Holy Christian Religion, of What Congregation So Ever, But Especially in Their Ministers, By Whose Eample the Filthy Leprosy and Apostacy is Spread Far and Near; It Is a Notorious Sin Which Many of the True Friends of Christ and His Pure Truth, called Quakers, Has Been for Many Years and Still Are Concern'd to Write and Bear Testimony Against as a Practice So Gross & Hurtful to Religion, and Destructive to Government Beyond What Words Can Set Forth, or Can Be Declared of by Men or Angels, and Yet Lived in by Ministers and Magistrates in America (Philadelphia: Ben Franklin, 1737)
Lloyd, Arthur Y., The Slavery Controversy, 1831-1860 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1939)
Long, Rev. John D. (1817-1894), Pictures of Slavery in Church and State, 2d ed. (Philadelphia, 1857)
Martineau, Harriet, Society in America (Paris: A. & W. Galignani and Co., 1837 reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1966, and London: Saunders and Otley, 1970 and 1974) (significant data on slavery sex abuse issues)
Martineau, Harriet, Views of Slavery & Emancipation from "Society in America" (New York: Piercy & Reed Pub, 1837)
Matlack, Lucius C., The History of American Slavery and Methodism, From 1780 to 1849 (New York, 1849)
McKeen, Silas, A Scriptural Argument in Favor of Withdrawing Fellowship From Churches and And Ecclesiastical Bodies Tolerating Slaveholding Among Them (New York: American & Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 1848)
McCarthy, Timothy Patrick, and John Stauffer, eds., Prophets of Protest: Reconsidering the History of American Abolitionism (New York: The New Press, 2006)
McPherson, James M., The Struggle for Equality: Abolitionists and the Begro in the Civil War and Reconstruction (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964) and 2d ed (1995)
Merrill, Walter M., Against Wind and Tide: A Biography of Wm. Lloyd Garrison (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1963)
Northrup, Solomon, Twelve Years A Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northrup, Citizen of New York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841 and Rescued in 1853 From a Cotton Plantation Near the Red River, in Louisiana (Auburn, NY: Derby and Miller, 1853) (biography of New Yorker kidnapped into slavery)
Nye, Prof. Russell B. (1915-1993) (English, Mich St Univ), "The Slave Power Conspiracy, 1830-1860," 10 Science and Society 262-274 (Summer 1946) [Excerpt]
Parker, Rev. Theodore (1810-1860), A Letter to The People of the United States Touching the Matter of Slavery (Boston: James Munore and Co, Pub, 1848)
Parker, Rev. Theodore, The Trial of Theodore Parker: For The "Misdemeanor" of A Speech in Faneuil Hall Against Kidnapping, Before the Circuit Court of the United States, at Boston, April 3, 1855 (Boston, 1855, reprinted, Holmes Beach, FL: Gaunt Pub, 1999)
Parker, Rev. Theodore, John Brown's Expedition Reviewed (Boston: Francis Jackson, 24 Nov 1859)
Pastorius, Franz Daniel (Mennonite Quaker), Christianity vs Slavery As Men-Stealing (Pennsylvania, 1688)
Patton, Rev. William W., Pro-slavery Interpretations of the Bible: Productive of Infidelity (Hartford: William H. Burleigh, 1846)
Pillsbury, Rev. Parker, The Church as It Is; The Forlorn Hope of Slavery (Boston: A. Forbes, 1847; reprinted, Concord, N.H.: Republican Press Ass'n, 1885)
Pillsbury, Rev. Parker, Acts of the Anti-Slavery Apostles (Concord, N.H., 1883)
Rankin, Rev. John (1793-1886), Letters on American Slavery, Addressed to Mr. Thomas Rankin, Merchant at Middlebrook, Augusta County, Virginia (Boston: Garrison & Knapp, 1833) (Context)
Rhodes, James Ford (1848-1927), History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 (New York: Macmillan and Co, 1900 and 1906) (Excerpt)
Sanborn, Franklin B. (1831-1917), Life and Letters of John Brown; Liberator of Kansas, and Martyr of Virginia (Boston: Roberts Bros, 1891)
Sandiford, Ralph (1693-1733), A Brief Examination of the Practice of the Times (Philadelphia: Franklin and Meredith, 1729)
Sewall, Samuel (1652-1730), The Selling of Joseph: A Memorial (Boston: Green & Allen Pub, 1700)
Seward, William (1801–1872), Senator and Secretary of State, The 'Higher Law' Concept (11 March 1850) (key sentence; full text) (concept later recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court: "There is a higher loyalty than loyalty to this country, loyalty to God."—U.S. v. Seeger, 380 US 163, 172; 85 S Ct 850; 13 L Ed 2d 733 )
Siebert, Wilbur Henry (1866-1961), and Hart, Albert Bushnell, The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom (New York: Macmillan, 1907 reprinted 1970) (pp 367-377 lists important fugitive slave cases)
Shaw, Benjamin, Illegality of Slavery (Boston: 1846)
Skillman, Rev. Isaac, Oration Upon the Beauties of Liberty (Boston: 1772) (demanding immediate abolition, and declaring that slaves had a right to rebel, pursuant to the laws of nature)
Society of Friends' Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, A Brief Statement of the Rise and Progress of the Testimony of the Religious Society of Friends, Against Slavery and the Slave Trade (Philadelphia: J. and W. Kite, 1843)
State of Maryland v Rev. Jacob Gruber, 1 Am St Trials 69-106 (Md, March 1819) (criminal prosecution of clergyman on charge of inciting slaves to insurrection and rebellion)
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, The Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin: Presenting The Original Facts And Documents Upon Which The Story Is Founded, Together With Corroborative Statements Verifying The Truth Of The Work (Boston: John P. Jewett & Co, 1853)
Sunderland, Rev. La Roy, (1802-1885), The Testimony of God Against Slavery: A Collection of Passages from the Bible, Which Show the Sin of Holding and Treating the Human Species as Property (Boston, Webster & Southard, 1835; New York, American Anti-slavery Society, 1836)
Thistlethwaite, Frank, Vice-Chancellor, Univ of East Anglia, Norwich, England, The Anglo-American Connection in the Early Nineteenth Century (Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1959, and NY: Russell & Russell, 1971)
Thomas, Prof John L. (History, Brown Univ), The Liberator: A Biography of William Lloyd Garrison (NY: Little, Brown & Co, 1963)
Thome, James A. (-1873), Kimball, Joseph Horace (1813-1838), and Theodore Weld, Emancipation in the West Indies: A Six Months' Tour in Antigua, Barbadoes, and Jamaica, in The Year 1837 (New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1838, reprinted New York: Arno Press, 1969) (Context; and Reference by Goodell)
Thompson, Joseph Parrish (1819-1879), No Slavery in Nebraska: The Voice of God Against National Crime (New York: Ivison & Phinney, 1854)
Thomson, Andrew (1779-1831), Abolition Principles Proclaimed in 1830 ... In Striking Contrast With The Proslavery Practices of the Free Church of Scotland at the Present Day (Glasgow, 1846)
Thomson, Andrew, Slavery Not Sanctioned, But Condemned, By Christianity: A Sermon (London: Ellerton and Henderson, 1824)
United Associate Synod of the Secession Church (Scotland), An Address on Negro Slavery, to the Christian Churches in the United States of America (Edinburgh: M. Paterson, Pub, 1836)
Virginia v Margaret Douglass, 7 Am St Trials 45-60 (2 June - 13 Nov 1853; 10 Jan 1854) (prosecution of woman for teaching colored children to read, jury voted $1 penalty, judge increased it to 30 days in jail)
Walker, David (1785-1830), Walker's Appeal, In Four Articles Together With a Preamble, to the Coloured Citizens of the World, But in Particular ... to Those of the United States of America, Written in Boston, State of Massachusetts, September 28, 1829 (Boston, David Walker, 1829, reprinted by Rev. Henry Highland Garnet, ed., New York: J. H. Tobitt Pub, 1848) (Other Editions Information)
Ward, Samuel Ringgold, Autobiography of a Fugitive Negro: His Anti-Slavery Labour (London: John Snow, 1855)
Weld, Theodore Dwight, Rev. (1803-1895), The Bible Against Slavery: An Inquiry Into the Patriarchal and Mosaic Systems on the Subject of Human Rights, 1st ed (1837), 4th ed (New York, American Anti-Slavery Society, 1838, reprinted, Westport, Conn: Negro Universities Press, 1970)
Weld, Theodore Dwight, Rev., The Power of Congress Over the District of Columbia (New York: J.F. Trow, 1838, reprinted Woodbridge, Conn: Research Publications, 1992)
Weld, Theodore Dwight, Rev., American Slavery As It Is: The Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses (New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1839)
Wesley, John (1703-1791), Thoughts upon Slavery (London: R. Hawes, 1774; Philadelphia: Joseph Cruckshank, 1774; and Dublin: W. Whitestone, 1775)
Whittier, John Greenleaf (1807-1892), "A Hymn: Written on the Occasion of the Emancipation of the Slaves in the British West Indies," in The Remembrancer (Philadelphia: T. Ellwood Chapman; Marshall, Williams, & Butler, 1841)
Woolley, E., The Land of the Free, or, A Brief View of Emancipation in the West Indies (Cincinnati: C. Clark, 1847)
Worcester, Samuel M., D.D. (1801-1868) aka Vigornius, Essays on Slavery Republished From the Boston Recorder & Telegraph, for 1825 (Amherst, Mass: M. H. Newman, 1826)
"Battle Hymn of The Republic"
(9 Atlantic Monthly (#9) p 10 [Feb 1862])
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